Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.
Groundwater samples collected either from the bore-wells (forms a part of municipal water supply) or from the hand pumps (direct consumption) were analysed for fluoride in Hisar city, India. The results indicate considerable variations among the analysed groundwater samples and the concentration of fluoride ranged from 0.03--16.6 mg/l. In most of the groundwater samples the concentration of fluoride was found to be moderately higher, when compared to the WHO standard for drinking water, which may lead to associated health risks in urban population, if the groundwater is being used without proper treatment. Furthermore, it is suggested that the sources of municipal water supply must be established in a region where an adequate level of fluoride was observed.