The ArcA regulon and oxidative stress resistance in Haemophilus influenzae
Cellular levels of diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, and decarboxylase activities to produce these diamines in six species (16 strains) of Haemophilus and four species (5 strains) of Actinobacillus belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Diaminopropane was ubiquitously distributed within all Haemophilus and Actinobacillus species, and L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid decarboxylase activity was detected in them. Putrescine and ornithine decarboxylase activity were found in H. aphrophilus, H. parainfluenzae and H. influenzae (type a, b, d, e and f except for type c) but not detected in H. aegyptius, H. parahaemolyticus, H. ducreyi and Actinobacillus species. Cadaverine occurred in H. aphrophilus, H. aegyptius, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. equuli and A. lignieresii, whereas their lysine decarboxylase activity was scarcely detected. Cadaverine was not found in H. parahaemolyticus, H. ducreyi and A. suis. The diamine profile serves as a phenotypic marker for the chemotaxonomic classification of the family Pasteurellaceae.