Chromogranin A (CgA) belongs to the family of chromogranin peptides which are contained in large dense-core vesicles. The novel CgA fragment catestatin (bovine CgA(344-364); RSMRLSFRARGYGFRGPGLQL) is a potent inhibitor of catecholamine release by acting as a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. Catestatin is a recently characterized neuropeptide, consisting of 21 amino acids, which might play an autocrine regulatory role in neuroendocrine secretion through its interaction with different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. This study investigates for the first time the distribution of this peptide in the human auditory system using immunohistochemistry. A high density of catestatin-like immunoreactivity (catestatin-LI) is located in the spiral ganglion cells. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a high density of catestatin-LI consists of varicose fibers, immunoreactive varicosities and immunoreactive neurons. A moderate density is detected in the ventral cochlear and the medial vestibular nucleus. A low density is found in the inferior colliculus and superior olivary complex. The study indicates that catestatin is distinctly distributed in the auditory system, suggesting a role as a neuromodulatory peptide. Further studies should elucidate a possible interaction with other neurotransmitters in the auditory system.