Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans.

  title={Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans.},
  author={Linda M. Arterburn and Eileen Bailey Hall and Harry A. Oken},
  journal={The American journal of clinical nutrition},
  volume={83 6 Suppl},
n-3 Fatty acids have important visual, mental, and cardiovascular health benefits throughout the life cycle. Biodistribution, interconversion, and dose response data are reviewed herein to provide a basis for more rational n-3 dose selections. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal n-3 fatty acid in tissues and is particularly abundant in neural and retinal tissue. Limited storage of the n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue suggests that a continued dietary supply is needed. A large… 

Very long-chain n-3 fatty acids and human health: fact, fiction and the future

  • P. Calder
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2017
Roles for n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and DHA are now also emerging, and these roles are linked to certain health or clinical benefits, particularly related to CVD, cancer, inflammation and neurocognitive function.

n-3 fatty acids: functional differences between food intake, oral supplementation and drug treatments.

Compound-specific isotope analysis reveals no retroconversion of DHA to EPA but substantial conversion of EPA to DHA following supplementation: a randomized control trial.

It is shown that the increase in plasma EPA following DHA supplementation in humans does not occur via retroconversion, but instead from a slowed metabolism and/or accumulation of plasma EPA.

Increased dietary α-linolenic acid has sex-specific effects upon eicosapentaenoic acid status in humans: re-examination of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel study

Women show a greater increase in circulating EPA than men during increased dietary ALA consumption, which could inform nutrition advice, with recommendations being specifically tailored according to habitual diet, sex, age and BMI.

Understanding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids not only protect against cardiovascular morbidity but also against mortality, and in some conditions, for example rheumatoid arthritis, they may be beneficial as therapeutic agents.

Gender differences in the n-3 fatty acid content of tissues

It is suggested that sex hormones act to modify plasma and tissue n-3 PUFA content, possibly by altering the expression of desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver, which is currently under investigation.

Omega-3 fatty acid biochemistry: perspectives from human nutrition.

Strategies for EPA and DHA supplementation do not address potential underlying problems of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid imbalance in the food supply and this exacerbates competition between LA and limited omega- 3 fatty acids for metabolism and acylation into tissue lipids.

The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

It is concluded that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.



Incorporation and washout of orally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions

EPA ethyl esters are rapidly incorporated into plasma lipids, especially into PL, and the relatively long half-life of EPA in plasma would permit a dosing schedule with intervals of ≥12 h in supplementation studies.

Flaxseed oil increases the plasma concentrations of cardioprotective (n-3) fatty acids in humans.

This study demonstrates the efficacy of the conversion of ALA to EPA and DPA in a minority population with chronic disease, and may be an alternative to fish oil; however, additional clinical trials with ALA are warranted.

Dose-response effects of fish-oil supplementation in healthy volunteers.

It is indicated that 3 g n-3 ethyl ester fatty acids appears to be the appropriate supplementation dose in humans, at least regarding lipid-profile changes and the ability to incorporate such fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids.

Kinetics of the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into serum cholesteryl esters, erythrocyte membranes, and adipose tissue: an 18-month controlled study.

Different (n-3) fatty acids were incorporated with different efficiencies, possibly because of interconversions or different affinities of the enzymatic pathways involved, and these findings may help in assessing the intake of n-3 fatty acids in epidemiological studies.

Effects of beef- and fish-based diets on the kinetics of n-3 fatty acid metabolism in human subjects.

The primary effect of a fish-based diet on the kinetics of n-3 metabolism involves processes that inhibit the synthesis of 22:6n-3 from 22:5N-3, and these processes may involve a system of feedback control mechanisms responsive to the plasma concentration of 23:5n- 3.

Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men

AlNA conversion was down- regulated by increased product (EPA+DHA) availability, but was not up-regulated by increased substrate (ALNA) consumption, which suggests regulation of ALNA conversion may limit the influence of variations in dietary n-3 fatty acid intake on plasma lipid compositions.

Incorporation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in tissues and enhanced bone marrow cellularity with docosahexaenoic acid feeding in post-weanling Fischer 344 rats

DHA, fed as DHASCOTM, has advantages over low or moderate n-6 diets and chow as it is has both hypolipidemic- and bone marrow-enhancing properties in weanling Fischer 344 rats, suggesting that DHA supplementation may be useful in adjuvant chemotherapy.

Alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in men and women: nutritional and biological implications.

  • G. Burdge
  • Medicine
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2004
Overall, alpha-linolenic acid appears to be a limited source of longer-chain n-3 fatty acids in man and so adequate intakes of preformed n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid, may be important for maintaining optimal tissue function.

Compartmental modeling to quantify alpha-linolenic acid conversion after longer term intake of multiple tracer boluses.

A low conversion of ALA-derived EPA into DPA might be an additional obstacle for DHA synthesis, and the limited incorporation of dietary ALA into the hepatic phospholipid pool contributes to the low hepatic conversion of AlA into EPA.