Distribution, formation and regulation of gas vesicles

  title={Distribution, formation and regulation of gas vesicles},
  author={Felicitas Pfeifer},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  • F. Pfeifer
  • Published 1 October 2012
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology
A range of bacteria and archaea produce intracellular gas-filled proteinaceous structures that function as flotation devices in order to maintain a suitable depth in the aqueous environment. The wall of these gas vesicles is freely permeable to gas molecules and is composed of a small hydrophobic protein, GvpA, which forms a single-layer wall. In addition, several minor structural, accessory or regulatory proteins are required for gas vesicle formation. In different organisms, 8–14 genes… 

Gas Vesicles of Archaea and Bacteria

  • F. Pfeifer
  • Biology
    Bacterial Organelles and Organelle-like Inclusions
  • 2020
Gas vesicles are hollow proteinaceous structures of spindle or cylinder shape produced by many cyanobacteria,heterotrophic bacteria and Archaea and homologues of the gvpgenes have been also detected in sporulating soil bacteria, raising the question of additional functions of Gvp proteins.

Microscopy of Microbial Gas Vesicles

Gas vesicles are intracellular gas-filled protein-shelled nanocompartments. Their function is to provide buoyancy which allows aerophilic bacteria to float into oxygenated surface waters (Walsby,

Haloarchaea and the Formation of Gas Vesicles

The applications of gas vesicles include their use as an antigen presenter for viral or pathogen proteins, but also as a stable ultrasonic reporter for biomedical purposes.

Understanding Gas Vesicles and Its Scope in Biotechnological Applications

  • A. Odaneth
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Advances in Biotechnology & Microbiology
  • 2018
Gas vesicle provide buoyancy so that bacteria can move towards oxygen-rich surface areas in hypersaline environments and for energy (ATP) synthesis driven by light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin.

Molecular genetic and physical analysis of gas vesicles in buoyant enterobacteria

The first systematic analysis of the genes required to produce gas vesicles in S39006 is presented, identifying how this differs from the archaeon H alobacterium salinarum and defining 11 proteins essential for gas vedicle production.

Microbial gas vesicles as nanotechnology tools: exploiting intracellular organelles for translational utility in biotechnology, medicine and the environment

A range of bacteria and archaea produce gas vesicles as a means to facilitate flotation, and those purified from a number of species and their applications in biotechnology and medicine are reviewed here.

Little red floaters: gas vesicles in an enterobacterium.

  • R. Sawers
  • Biology
    Environmental microbiology
  • 2016
An elegant genetic and biophysical study reported by the Salmond group at Cambridge University has elaborated new aspects relating to the morphogenesis of gas vesicles in the enterobacterium Serratia sp.

Structure of the gas vesicle protein GvpF from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

It is shown that GvpF is most likely to be a structural protein that is localized at the gas-facing surface of the gas vesicle by immunoblotting and immunogold labelling-based tomography.

Interaction of Haloarchaeal Gas Vesicle Proteins Determined by Split-GFP

The split-GFP method is suitable to investigate the interaction of two proteins in haloarchaeal cells and determine whether some or all of these accessory Gvp proteins form a protein complex during early stages of the assembly of the gas vesicle wall.

Cryo-EM structure of gas vesicles for buoyancy-controlled motility

This work solves the 3.2 Å cryo-EM structure of the B.megaterium gas vesicle shell made from the structural protein GvpA that self-assembles into hollow helical cylinders closed off by cone-shaped tips and identifies pores in the vesicles wall that enable gas molecules to freely diffuse in and out of the GV shell, while the exceptionally hydrophobic interior surface effectively repels water.



Gas Vesicle Genes Identified in Bacillus megaterium and Functional Expression in Escherichia coli

The cloning and sequence analysis of an 8,142-bp cluster of 15 putative gas vesicle genes (gvp) from Bacillus megaterium VT1660 and their functional expression in Escherichia coli are reported, making this the first example of a functional gas vedicle gene cluster in nonaquatic bacteria and the first examples of the interspecies transfer of genes resulting in the synthesis of afunctional organelle.

The distribution of the outer gas vesicle protein, GvpC, on the Anabaena gas vesicle, and its ratio to GvpA.

The Anabaena GvpC will bind to and restore the strength of gas vesicles isolated from Aphanizomenon and Microcystis that lack their native GVPC.

Gas vesicles.

A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth.

The Minor Cyanobacterial Gas Vesicle Protein, GVPc, Is Attached to the Outer Surface of the Gas Vesicle

It is shown here that GVPc can be removed from the gas vesicles, without their collapsing, by rinsing in solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate, and suggested that the protein provides structural support and reduces pressures generated by surface tension.

Gas vesicles are strengthened by the outer-surface protein, GvpC

The results indicate that the function of GvpC is to increase the strength of the structure in gas vesicles isolated from Anabaena flos-aquae.

A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium

It is proposed that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen.

Molecular weight of gas-vesicle protein from the planktonic cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae and implications for structure of the vesicle.

Protein sequence analysis shows that the gas vesicle of the planktonic cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae is made from a single protein, and a simple interpretation of its molecular structure is of the polypeptide snaking in six pairs of antiparallel chains.

Use of cyanobacterial gas vesicles as oxygen carriers in cell culture

The study results indicated that the gas vesicles, with high oxygen carrying capacity, can be used to increase the oxygen supply in cell culture systems.

GvpCs with reduced numbers of repeating sequence elements bind to and strengthen cyanobacterial gas vesicles

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