Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex.

  title={Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex.},
  author={D. J. Felleman and D. C. van Essen},
  journal={Cerebral cortex},
  volume={1 1},
In recent years, many new cortical areas have been identified in the macaque monkey. The number of identified connections between areas has increased even more dramatically. We report here on (1) a summary of the layout of cortical areas associated with vision and with other modalities, (2) a computerized database for storing and representing large amounts of information on connectivity patterns, and (3) the application of these data to the analysis of hierarchical organization of the cerebral… 
The organization of neural systems in the primate cerebral cortex
  • M. Young
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1993
An application of the optimization analysis to the cortico-cortical connections of other major sensory systems in the primate brain, and to the connections of the entire cerebral cortex, suggests the gross topological organization of the cortical information processing system of this animal.
Temporal Aspects of Information Processing in Areas V1 and V2 of the Macaque Monkey
In mammals, the neocortex devoted to each sensory modality is subdivided into a number of functional areas, and it is important to associate a common tag to the neurons coding for the same stimulus and which are distributed in different cortical areas.
Organization of Visual Areas in Macaque and Human Cerebral Cortex
This work presents a fragmentary and rapidly evolving understanding of the overall extent of visual cortex, the total number of visual areas, the identities of these areas, and their location in relation to one another and to various gyral and sulcal landmarks in mammalian visual system.
1 Surface-Based Comparisons of Macaque and Human Cortical Organization
In his pioneering architectonic studies of primate cerebral cortex, Brodmann (1909) described a rich mosaic of anatomically distinct cortical areas in both humans and monkeys, but the evolutionary relationships are much less clear for most of the remaining expanse of neocortex.
Large-scale organization of the primate cortical visual system
This approach gives qualitative and quantitative insight into the connectional topology of the primate cortical visual system and provides new evidence supporting suggestions that the system is divided into a dorsal `stream' and a ventral `stream', that these two streams reconverge in the region of the principal sulcus and in the superior temporal polysensory areas.
Anatomical connectivity defines the organization of clusters of cortical areas in the macaque monkey and the cat.
Computational analyses capable of showing whether clusters of strongly interconnected areas are aspects of the global organization of cortical systems in macaque and cat show that structure and function are closely linked at this gross, systems level.
Objective analysis of the topological organization of the primate cortical visual system
This approach supports suggestions that the primate cortical visual system is divided into a dorsal and a ventral 'stream' with limited cross-talk, that these two streams reconverge in the region of the principal sulcus and in the superior temporal polysensory areas, and that the system is hierarchically organized.
Topographic Organization of Extraoccipital Visual Processing Areas in the Macaque
It is found that most visuospatial processing areas only respond to contralaterally presented stimuli; ipsilaterally presented stimuli evoked little or no activity in these areas, which indicates that there may be significant differences between macaque visual processing areas and their putative human homologues.
Oscillations and Synchrony in the Visual Cortex: Evidence for Their Functional Relevance
The past 20 years of research on the visual cortex have revealed an organizational complexity that was largely unforeseen, and object representations in the visual system are likely to correspond to large and highly distributed assemblies of feature-detecting neurons.


Why Does the Brain Have So Many Visual Areas?
  • J. Kaas
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
  • 1989
Increasing the number of visual or other cortical areas is an effective and apparently common mechanism for evolving new capacities in mammals.
Corticocortical connections among visual areas in the cat
The cortical interconnections of 17 visual areas in the cat were studied by making single injections through recording micropipettes of the neuroanatomical tracers 3H‐leucine and horseradish
Topography of cognition: parallel distributed networks in primate association cortex.
The structure and functions of the frontal lobes, particularly the prefrontal "silent" portion, have recently again become the subject of intense interest and the availability of solid new findings in experimental animals and human patients and the promise of further discoveries are undoubtedly the basis of this renewed interest.
The connections of the middle temporal visual area (MT) and their relationship to a cortical hierarchy in the macaque monkey
  • J. Maunsell, D. van Essen
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1983
The cortical and subcortical connections of the middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey were investigated using combined injections of [3H]proline and horseradish peroxidase within MT to determine a hierarchical arrangement of visual areas.
The middle temporal visual area in the macaque: Myeloarchitecture, connections, functional properties and topographic organization
The location, topographic organization, and function of the middle temporal visual area in the macaque monkey was studied using anatomical and physiological techniques, with the emphasis on central vision being similar to that found in striate cortex.
Visual processing in monkey extrastriate cortex.
Three recent developments that have yielded insight into information processing and flow within extrastriate cortex are focused on.
Parallel visual pathways: A review
Organization of visual cortex in the mouse revealed by correlating callosal and striate-extrastriate connections.
The results support the notions that the visual cortex in the mouse is subdivided into multiple visual areas, and that these areas are arranged according to a plan that is common in rodents.
Relation of cortical areas MT and MST to pursuit eye movements. I. Localization and visual properties of neurons.
This series of experiments has attempted to relate this visual motion processing at a neuronal level to a behavior that is dependent on such processing, the generation of smooth-pursuit eye movements.
The entorhinal cortex of the monkey: II. Cortical afferents
Whereas there is little available physiological information concerning many of the cortical regions that project to the entorhinal cortex, on anatomical grounds they may be generally characterized as poly sensory associational regions, this work has carried out a systematic analysis of these connections by placing small injections of the retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase into each of the fields of theEntorhinals monkey.