Distress and empathy: two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences.

@article{Batson1987DistressAE,
  title={Distress and empathy: two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences.},
  author={C. Daniel Batson and Jim Fultz and Patricia A. Schoenrade},
  journal={Journal of personality},
  year={1987},
  volume={55 1},
  pages={
          19-39
        }
}
The construct of empathy may be located conceptually at several different points in the network of interpersonal cognition and emotion. We discuss one specific form of emotional empathy--other-focused feelings evoked by perceiving another person in need. First, evidence is reviewed suggesting that there are at least two distinct types of congruent emotional responses to perceiving another in need: feelings of personal distress (e.g., alarmed, upset, worried, disturbed, distressed, troubled, etc… 
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