Distinguishing the geographic levels and social dimensions of U.S. metropolitan segregation, 1960–2000

  title={Distinguishing the geographic levels and social dimensions of U.S. metropolitan segregation, 1960–2000},
  author={Claude S. Fischer and Gretchen Stockmayer and Jon Stiles and Michael Hout},
In this article, we assess trends in residential segregation in the United States from 1960 to 2000 along several dimensions of race and ethnicity, class, and life cycle and present a method for attributing segregation to nested geographic levels. We measured segregation for metropolitan America using the Theil index, which is additively decomposed into contributions of regional, metropolitan, center city—suburban, place, and tract segregation. This procedure distinguishes whether groups live… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Toward a New Macro-Segregation? Decomposing Segregation within and between Metropolitan Cities and Suburbs
This article documents a new macro-segregation, where the locus of racial differentiation resides increasingly in socio-spatial processes at the community or place level. The goal is to broaden the
White Residential Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Conceptual Issues, Patterns, and Trends from the U.S. Census, 1980 to 2010
It is found that White segregation from others declined significantly from 1980 to 2010, regardless of the measure of segregation or the White population used, and some evidence consistent with the group threat perspective is found, as White dissimilarity is higher in metro areas that are more diverse, and especially those with larger Black populations.
Density Zoning and Class Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas
Metropolitan areas with suburbs that restrict the density of residential construction are more segregated on the basis of income than those with more permissive density zoning regimes, which perpetuates and exacerbates racial and class inequality in the United States.
The geographic scale of Metropolitan racial segregation
This article develops an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation, and argues that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation.
National estimates of racial segregation in rural and small-town America
Levels and trends in recent patterns of racial segregation in America’s small towns are remarkably similar to patterns observed in larger metropolitan cities, reinforcing the need to broaden the spatial scale of segregation beyond its traditional focus on metropolitan cities or suburban places.
Poverty, Prosperity, and Place: The Shape of Class Segregation in the Age of Extremes
Rising economic disparities in the United States at the end of the twentieth century make understanding the severity and determinants of residential segregation between the affluent and poor
Immigrant suburbanisation and the shifting geographic structure of metropolitan segregation in the United States
This study investigates immigrant suburbanisation trends over the past decade in the metropolitan USA, focusing on how suburbanisation affects the residential segregation of foreign-born populations.
Socioeconomic Segregation in Large Cities in France and the United States
Differences in government provision of housing assistance and levels of income inequality are likely important contributing factors to the Franco-U.S. difference in socioeconomic segregation.
Metropolitan racial residential segregation in the United States: A microlevel and cross-context analysis of Black, Latino, and Asian segregation
OBJECTIVE We seek to establish the direct quantitative link between microand macrolevels of segregation for White–Latino, White–Asian, and White–Black metropolitan segregation using new methods for


The Spatial Segregation of Ethnic and Demographic Groups: Comparative Evidence from Stockholm and San Francisco
This paper compares the level of spatial segregation by race or ethnicity with the level of spatial segregation by demographic group in two metropolitan areas with similar incomes and demographic
The Relative Importance of Income and Race in Determining Residential Outcomes in U.S. Urban Areas, 1970-2000
The author uses the unique properties of the entropy index to explore trends in segregation by race/ethnicity and income class for families from 1970 to 2000. Declines in segregation by race and
Segregation by Racial and Demographic Group: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area
This paper considers residential segregation by race and by type of household in 1970 and 1980. The paper presents entropy indices of segregation for the San Francisco Bay Area and its five
Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: two decades of change
It is shown that black-white segregation declined modestly at the national level after 1980, while Hispanic and Asian segregation rose in most metropolitan areas, associated especially with the more rapid growth in the Hispanics and Asian populations.
The changing geographic structure of black-white segregation in the United States.
The goal of this study is to measure black segregation at four geographic levels in the United States--state county city and neighborhood--and to assess the changing geographic structure of
City Limits on Racial Equality: The Effects of City-Suburb Boundaries on Public-School Desegregation, 1968-1976.
This research examines the determinants of public-school segregation in 65 metropolitan areas in 1968 and segregation changes between 1968 and 1976. Models for central-city and suburban public
Minority Proximity to Whites in Suburbs: An Individual-Level Analysis of Segregation
A novel method for location analysis at the individual level is used to analyze the determinants of proximity to non-Hispanic whites separately for Asians, blacks, Hispanics, and for non-Hispanic
Redefining Urban and Suburban America: Evidence from Census 2000
Results from Census 2000 continue to reveal the striking changes taking place in the nation's cities and suburbs during the 1990s. Thanks to a decade of strong economic growth, concentrated poverty
Race and Residential Mobility: Individual Determinants and Structural Constraints
Data from over 25,000 respondents of the Annual Housing Survey are used to examine racial differences in the levels and determinants of residential mobility between 1979 and 1980. Cross racial