Distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

  title={Distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 diabetes},
  author={Alexandra E. Butler and David Misselbrook},
### What you need to know A 33 year old man with no notable medical history attends his general practitioner reporting two months of fatigue, with no other symptoms. His mother has hypothyroidism. His body mass index is 25 kg/m2 and he has a pulse rate of 72 beats/min and blood pressure 135/88 mmHg with no postural drop. Examination is unremarkable. A random blood glucose test shows 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL). Urinalysis is normal. The next day the patient returns, and a repeat fasting glucose test… 
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A large number of older adults are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and the lines between type 1 and type 2 diabetes can blur.
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Diabetics are more prone to oral candidiasis, especially C. albicans infections, according to a meta-analysis of studies found in patients with and without diabetes mellitus.
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최근 급격한 사회경제적 발전 및 식습관의 변화, 운동량 감소 등으로 소아청소년에서 비만의 유병률이 전 세계적으 로 증가하는 추세를 보이고 있다. 우리나라에서도 국민건 강영양조사 분석에 따르면 한국 소아청소년 비만 유병률은 2001년 8.6%에서 2017년 9.8%로 증가하는 경향을 보이고 있다[1]. 이와 관련되어 제2형 당뇨병 역시 소아청소년에서


Use of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the UK. The implementation of World Health Organization guidance 2011
  • W. G. John
  • Medicine
    Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
  • 2012
The WHO recognize that individuals with HbA(1c) values below the cut-off point may still have diabetes, but give no guidance on how to investigate further; it is important that these individuals, who may be at increased risk of developing diabetes, are monitored correctly.
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The criteria identified are similar to the Royal College of General Practitioners National Health Service (RCGP/NHS) Diabetes classification guidelines, which use age at diagnosis <35 years and time to insulin <6 m.
Autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes
It has been reported that approximately 50% of the genetic risk for T1DM can be attributed to the HLA region and the highest risk HLA-DR3/4 DQ8 genotype has been shown to be highly associated with beta-cell autoimmunity.
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It is imperative to establish distinct practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of LADA and for providers to recognize this clinical scenario as one that requires special testing to establish a proper diagnosis and thus improve patient safety and treatment efficacy.
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Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: Current Status and New Horizons
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The present study indicates that IDDM may develop at any age, and the life‐time risk of developing IDDM is higher than hitherto expected.
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C-peptide level may correlate with microvascular and macrovascular complications and future use of insulin therapy, as well as likely response to other individual therapies, and the potential uses of c- peptide measurement in clinical practice are explored.