Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic sources for elements in the environment: regional geochemical surveys versus enrichment factors.

  title={Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic sources for elements in the environment: regional geochemical surveys versus enrichment factors.},
  author={Clemens Reimann and Patrice de Caritat},
  journal={The Science of the total environment},
  volume={337 1-3},
High element enrichment factors (EFs) are commonly used in the literature to support the hypothesis that a particular suite of elements is of anthropogenic origin. Real-world examples of regional geochemical surveys demonstrate that EFs can be high or low due to a multitude of reasons, of which contamination is but one. This applies to EFs calculated relative to either the crust or some local background (e.g., a deeper soil layer). Results from local studies near industrial centres showing high… CONTINUE READING


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 74 extracted citations


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 42 references

Environmental geochemical atlas of the central barents region. Trondheim, Norway7 Geological Survey of Norway

  • C Reimann, M Äyr7s, V Chekushin, I Bogatyrev, R Boyd, P de Caritat
  • NGU-GTK-CKE Special Publication
  • 1998
Highly Influential
6 Excerpts

Agricultural soils in Northern Europe: a geochemical Atlas. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Sonderhefte, Reihe, D. Stuttgart7 Schweizerbart’sche

  • C. Reimann, U. Siewers, T. Tarvainen, L. Bityukova, J. Eriksson, A Gilucis
  • Verlagsbuchhandlung;
  • 2003
Highly Influential
6 Excerpts

Processes influencing the chemical composition of the O-horizon of podzols along a 500 km north–south profile from the coast of the Barents Sea to the Arctic Circle

  • C Reimann, D Banks, G. Kashulina
  • Geoderma 2000a;95:113–39
  • 2000
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Organometallic compounds in the environment, 2nd ed

  • PJ Craig, editor
  • 2003

Heavy metals in fresh snow collected at different altitudes in the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, French Alps: initial results. Atmospheric Environment 2001;35:415–25

  • A Veysseyre, K Moutard, C Ferrari, K Van de Velde, C Barbante, G Cozzi
  • 2001
3 Excerpts

Metallogenic provinces, geochemical provinces and regional geology—what causes large-scale patterns in low-density geochemical maps of the C-horizon of podzols in Arctic Europe

  • C Reimann, V. Melezhik
  • Applied Geochemistry
  • 2001
2 Excerpts

Multielement, multi-medium regional geochemistry in the European arctic: element concentration, variation and correlation

  • C Reimann, G Kashulina, P Caritat de, H. Niskavaara
  • Geochemistry
  • 2001
2 Excerpts

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…