Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic sources for elements in the environment: regional geochemical surveys versus enrichment factors.

@article{Reimann2005DistinguishingBN,
  title={Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic sources for elements in the environment: regional geochemical surveys versus enrichment factors.},
  author={Clemens Reimann and Patrice de Caritat},
  journal={The Science of the total environment},
  year={2005},
  volume={337 1-3},
  pages={91-107}
}
High element enrichment factors (EFs) are commonly used in the literature to support the hypothesis that a particular suite of elements is of anthropogenic origin. Real-world examples of regional geochemical surveys demonstrate that EFs can be high or low due to a multitude of reasons, of which contamination is but one. This applies to EFs calculated relative to either the crust or some local background (e.g., a deeper soil layer). Results from local studies near industrial centres showing high… CONTINUE READING

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