Distinguishing Asiatic Black Bears and Sun Bears by Claw Marks on Climbed Trees

  title={Distinguishing Asiatic Black Bears and Sun Bears by Claw Marks on Climbed Trees},
  author={Robert Steinmetz and David L Garshelis},
Abstract Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) are sympatric in mainland Southeast Asia and face similar threats of habitat loss and commercial poaching. They are rarely seen but leave distinct signs, especially claw marks on climbed trees. These markings, which are potentially valuable indicators of presence, population status, and behavior of black bears and sun bears, have limited usefulness if the 2 species cannot be differentiated. We measured 121 claw… Expand
Estimating ages of bear claw marks in Southeast Asian tropical forests as an aid to population monitoring
Abstract Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in Southeast Asia leave claw marks on climbed trees that provide a cumulative history of their presence andExpand
Status and Distribution of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mizoram, India
Malayan sun bear is the smallest among all bears and the only tropical bear species inhabiting ‎the lowland tropical forest of Southeast Asia. Once abundant, they are now considered as ‎priorityExpand
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Foraging signs identified to bear species to examine their food selection and dietary overlap relative to food abundance, nutrition, and phenology in 3 habitats in Thailand suggested that coexistence of these 2 species would be explained through resource partitioning; however, the data did not support this hypothesis. Expand
Daily activity pattern of Malayan Sun bear in Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mizoram, India
Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is the smallest bear species and remains the least known bear ‎among the ursids. Reliable information on population and activity pattern of Sun bear has been ‎lacking,Expand
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Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in Indonesia are primarily threatened by destruction of their forest habitat, with poaching for body parts a secondary threat. Protected areas are increasinglyExpand
The Shared Preference Niche of Sympatric Asiatic Black Bears and Sun Bears in a Tropical Forest Mosaic
Bear species co-occurrence at both coarse and fine spatial scales and use of the same resources (fruit trees) indicated common niche preferences, which indicate broadly overlapping fundamental niches combined with asymmetric competition—features consistent with the concept of shared preference niches. Expand
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Abstract Three species of bears occur in Bangladesh, but most populations have declined to very low numbers or disappeared completely. No systematic surveys have been conducted to determine statusExpand
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Sun bears, Helarctos malayanus, the largest carnivore on the island of Borneo, are threatened by habitat loss. Besides direct cutting and forest conversion, forest fires and drought, related toExpand
Phylogeographic and Demographic Analysis of the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) Based on Mitochondrial DNA
The estimation that the population size of the Japanese subspecies increased rapidly during the Late Pleistocene is the first evidential signal of a niche exchange between brown bears and black bears in the Japanese main islands, and supports the new evolutionary hypothesis of theJapanese black bear. Expand


UvA-DARE ( Digital Academic Repository ) Frugivory in sun bears ( Helarctos malayanus ) is linked to El Niño-related fluctuations in fruiting phenology , East Kalimantan , Indonesia
Sun bear fruit feeding observations were unevenly distributed over forest types with more observations in high-dry forest type despite fewer fruiting events, possibly due to a side-effect of high insect abundance that causes bears to use these areas more intensively. Expand
Food habits of Malayan sun bears in lowland tropical forest of Borneo
It is concluded that sun bears are opportunistic omnivores consuming a wide variety of food items, including termites, beetles, and beetle larvae. Expand
In this paper I use multivariate statistical analyses of Sun Bear (Ursus malayanus) skull measurements to investigate the differences between specimens from Borneo, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, andExpand
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Managing and conserving uncommon mammals, such as fisher (Martes pennanti) and American marten (M. americana), depend upon a reliable mechanism to index their populations. In parts of their rangesExpand
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The eight species of bear live in more than 65 countries or autonomous regions in four continents, in a variety of habitats from tropical rainforests to arctic ice. Numerous human cultures around theExpand
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Gaur (Bos gaurus) and banteng (Bos javanicus) populations throughout South-east Asia have declined severely because of hunting and habitat fragmentation. Important remnant populations persist in XeExpand
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Abstract We introduce a rigorous technique to make individual animal identification by tracks more objective than previously possible. With measurements from acetate tracings of two to six tracksExpand
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