Analysis of the inhibitors of apoptosis identifies BIRC3 as a facilitator of malignant progression in glioma
Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are extensively involved in NFκB signaling pathways. Regulation of c-IAP2 turnover by other proteins was investigated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells in the present study. When overexpressed, X-linked IAP (XIAP) enhanced expression of ectopic c-IAP2, but not c-IAP1, and endogenous c-IAP2 levels were reduced once XIAP expression was silenced. TNFα stimulation substantially increased c-IAP2 expression, and this upregulation was impaired by suppression of XIAP. Similarly, when XIAP was limiting due to severe hypoxic conditions, c-IAP2 levels were downregulated. These data together indicate that XIAP is an important regulator responsible for stabilization of c-IAP2 levels under different conditions. Protein interactions occur through binding of BIR2 and BIR3 domains of c-IAP2 with the RING finger of XIAP. XIAP inhibition of c-IAP2 auto-degradation was dependent on this physical interaction, and it was independent of XIAP E3 ligase activity. Global c-IAP2 ubiquitination was not affected by XIAP, although c-IAP2 levels were significantly increased. A CARD-RING-containing fragment of c-IAP2 was found to target XIAP for proteasome-independent degradation, but it was unable to sensitize GBM cells to chemo-reagents. The XIAP-stabilized c-IAP2 was found to enhance IκB-α phosphorylation on serines 32 and 36, and to antagonize XIAP-induced increase in mature Smac and Bcl10. Taken together, our data identify a distinctive role of c-IAP2 as stabilizer of XIAP, which is likely involved in regulation of NFκB activation and apoptosis in GBM cells.