We performed a cytogenetic study on 16 murine mature B-cell lymphomas and 10 T-cell lymphomas, using G-banding techniques. All tumors, with the exception of 3 spontaneous B-cell tumors, were induced by various slowly transforming murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). Metaphases were obtained from primary (10 B-cell tumors) and first or second transplant generation lymphomas (6 B-cell and 10 T-cell tumors), all of which were well characterized with respect to phenotypic, histologic and genotypic features. In the T-cell tumors we found relatively simple karyotypic abnormalities, including various numerical aberrations, such as trisomy 15, in line with many earlier reports. However, the majority of B-cell tumors showed a great variety of both structural and numerical chromosomal anomalies. Three B-cell lymphomas had an apparently normal karyotype. No single cytogenetic abnormality occurred commonly in the B-cell lymphomas, but some structural abnormalities were found in more than one stemline, in particular, ins (II) (A1; A2) in 3 tumors, and deletions involving the D-region of chromosome 14 in 3 other lymphomas. These cytogenetic results clearly indicate that the pathogenic mechanisms involved in MuLV-induced (long latency) B-cell lymphomagenesis and (short latency) T-cell lymphomagenesis differ considerably.