Distinct acute effects of LSD, MDMA, and d-amphetamine in healthy subjects

  title={Distinct acute effects of LSD, MDMA, and d-amphetamine in healthy subjects},
  author={Friederike Holze and Patrick Vizeli and Felix M{\"u}ller and Laura Ley and Raoul Duerig and Nimmy Varghese and Anne Eckert and Stefan J. Borgwardt and Matthias E. Liechti},
  pages={462 - 471}
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a classic psychedelic, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an empathogen, and d-amphetamine is a classic stimulant. All three substances are used recreationally. LSD and MDMA are being investigated as medications to assist psychotherapy, and d-amphetamine is used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. All three substances induce distinct acute subjective effects. However, differences in acute responses to these prototypical… 

Acute subjective effects in LSD- and MDMA-assisted psychotherapy

LSD and MDMA are currently used medically in Switzerland mainly in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in group settings, producing similar acute responses as in research subjects.

Dosing Psychedelics and MDMA.

Different aspects of psychedelic dosing are discussed, including pharmaceutical aspects, definitions and characteristics of different doses, including microdoses, aspects of personalized dosing, and non-pharmacological factors, that can influence the response to psychedelics.

MDMA and memory, addiction, and depression: dose-effect analysis

The present dose-ranging study provides further evidence that 3 mg/kg is the threshold for MDMA-induced amnesia, and demonstrates that careful selection of MDMA dose is critical.

Acute dose-dependent effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects

The LSD dose–response curve showed a ceiling effect for subjective good effects, and ego dissolution and anxiety increased further at a dose above 100 µg, which may assist with dose finding for future LSD research.

Prediction of MDMA response in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled studies

Although MDMA plasma concentration was the strongest predictor, several personality traits and mood state variables additionally explained variance in the response to MDMA, confirming that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological variables influence the response of MDMA.

Safety pharmacology of acute LSD administration in healthy subjects

The single-dose administration of LSD is safe in regard to acute psychological and physical harm in healthy subjects in a controlled research setting.

Direct comparison of the acute effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects

Both doses of LSD and the high dose of psilocybin produced qualitatively and quantitatively very similar subjective effects, indicating that alterations of mind that are induced by LSD and psilocbin do not differ beyond the effect duration.

A Comparison of Acute Pharmacological Effects of Methylone and MDMA Administration in Humans and Oral Fluid Concentrations as Biomarkers of Exposure

The results demonstrate that the potential abuse liability of methylone is similar to that of MDMA in recreational subjects, and methylone concentrations in oral fluid can be considered a useful biomarker to detect acute exposure in Oral fluid.

Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Acute Effects of LSD on Empathy and Circulating Oxytocin

It is confirmed that LSD enhances empathy, and this effect may be partially independent of its primary action on 5-HT2A receptors to induce subjective psychedelic effects.

Beyond ecstasy: Alternative entactogens to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine with potential applications in psychotherapy

  • H. Oeri
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 2020
This review examines the existing literature on a host of entactogenic drugs, which may prove to be useful alternatives to MDMA, paying particularly close attention to any neurotoxic risks, neuropharmacological mechanism of action andEntactogenic commonalities with MDMA.



Safety pharmacology of acute MDMA administration in healthy subjects

MDMA administration was overall safe in physically and psychiatrically healthy subjects and in a medical setting, however, the risks of MDMA are likely higher in patients with cardiovascular disease and remain to be investigated in Patients with psychiatric disorders.

The paradoxical psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

The present findings reinforce the view that psychedelics elicit psychosis-like symptoms acutely yet improve psychological wellbeing in the mid to long term, and are proposed that acute alterations in mood are secondary to a more fundamental modulation in the quality of cognition.

Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects

Physiologic, subjective, and behavioral effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, phenmetrazine, and methylphenidate in man

This study suggests that it is unlikely that these central actions in man are a consequence of the release of norepinephrine in the brain, and suggests that these five agents share a common mode of central action.

Effects of MDMA and Intranasal Oxytocin on Social and Emotional Processing

The present findings provide only limited support for the idea that oxytocin produces the prosocial effects of MDMA, which increases euphoria and feelings of sociability.

The effects of MDMA on socio-emotional processing: Does MDMA differ from other stimulants?

The findings reviewed here lay the groundwork for better understanding the socially enhancing effects of MDMA that distinguish it from other stimulant drugs, especially as these effects relate to the reinforcing and potentially therapeutic effects of the drug.