Dissociation in Trauma: A New Definition and Comparison with Previous Formulations

@article{Nijenhuis2011DissociationIT,
  title={Dissociation in Trauma: A New Definition and Comparison with Previous Formulations},
  author={Ellert R S Nijenhuis and Onno van der Hart},
  journal={Journal of Trauma \& Dissociation},
  year={2011},
  volume={12},
  pages={416 - 445}
}
Amid controversy regarding the psychobiological construct of dissociation, efforts to formulate a precise definition of dissociation are rare. Some understandings of dissociation are so broad that a host of common psychobiological phenomena would qualify as dissociative. Overly narrow conceptualizations of dissociation exclude phenomena that originally, and for good reasons, have been regarded as dissociative. A common lack of conceptual distinctions between dissociation as process… 
Contemporary concepts of dissociation.
TLDR
Some researchers and theorists suggest return to the original understanding of dissociation as a basic premise for the further development of the concept of Dissociation.
Understanding Peritraumatic Dissociation: Evolution-Prepared Dissociation, Tonic Immobility, and Clinical Dissociation
Current literature on the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and dissociation that occurs during the time of a trauma, or peritraumatic dissociation, appears to be contradictory and
Structure with Engagement: Toward an Integration of Trauma and Relational Psychoanalytic Models in the Treatment of Dissociative Disorders
Trauma model approaches to the treatment of dissociative disorders may provide containment and direction and yet, these same approaches may be constricting and limit exploration. However, relational
The Metaphor of Dissociation: Teleological, Phenomenological, Structural, Dynamical
  • E. Nijenhuis
  • Psychology, Philosophy
    QUADERNI DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA
  • 2019
Dissociation as used in psychology and psychiatry is a troubled conceptual metaphor. The main problems include conflicting definitions and a lack of internal consistency of some of these
The path to dissociative experiences: A direct comparison of different etiological models.
TLDR
Oscillations in dissociation across months, when taking psychological distress into account, were better explained by unusual dreaming than traditional sleep quality measures, and a complex, integrated etiological model for dissociative experiences is warranted.
The Value of Hypnosis in the Resolution of Dissociation: Clinical Lessons from World War I on the Integration of Traumatic Memories
  • O. Hart
  • Psychology
    QUADERNI DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA
  • 2019
Some World War I clinicians related the symptoms of traumatized servicemen to an underlying dissociation of their personality, consisting of two prototypical conditions: one involving functioning in
A History of Dissociation and Madness
TLDR
Although some suggest that dissociated identity states are the product of over-zealous clinicians, the history of schizophrenia tells a different story, where what was considered by Janet to be hysterical and an understandable response to childhood trauma became broken down into arbitrary categories purported to be diseases of the brain.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 80 REFERENCES
Trauma-related dissociation: conceptual clarity lost and found.
TLDR
Limitation of the concept of dissociation to structural dividedness of the personality sets it apart from related but non-dissociative phenomena and provides a taxonomy of dissociative symptoms and postulates a common psychobiological pathway for all trauma-related disorders.
Different Types of “Dissociation” Have Different Psychological Mechanisms
  • Richard J. Brown
  • Psychology
    Journal of trauma & dissociation : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation
  • 2006
TLDR
Evidence for a bipartite model of dissociation is presented, followed by definitions and descriptions of detachment and compartmentalization, and possible psychological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are discussed.
Disintegrated experience: the dissociative disorders revisited.
TLDR
It is concluded that further work on dissociative processes will provide an important link between clinical and experimental approaches to human cognition, emotion, and personality.
Somatoform Dissociation in Traumatized World War I Combat Soldiers
Abstract The massive traumatization of World War I combat soldiers led to an unprecedented incidence of somatoform dissociative disorders and symptoms, usually diagnosed as hysterical disorders
Somatoform dissociation : phenomena, measurement, and theoretical issues
TLDR
This book is essential reading for all mental health professionals engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of dissociative disorders, PTSD, and other trauma-related psychiatric disorders.
The Dissociations of Everyday Life
Hilgard’s comment has within it two observations: one regarding the ubiquity of dissociative experiences in everyday life, the other concerning our curious lack of awareness of that fact. It is with
Relations Among Peritraumatic Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress: A Critical Review
TLDR
In the majority of studies, evidence was found for a positive association between peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress but research is limited by several methodological differences and shortcomings with respect to study design, sample characteristics, measurement instruments, and control for moderating or mediating variables.
Dissociative identity disorder and the sociocognitive model: recalling the lessons of the past.
TLDR
The present authors conclude that Gleaves's analysis underemphasized the cultural manifestations of multiple role enactments and that the history of DID imparts a valuable lesson to contemporary psychotherapists.
Should conversion disorder be reclassified as a dissociative disorder in DSM V?
TLDR
There is a strong case for reintegrating pseudoneurological symptoms with the dissociative disorders, as in ICD-10, and the position that these phenomena share underlying processes.
...
...