Dissociation between maternal and fetal toxicity of methyl isocyanate in mice and rats.

@article{Varma1990DissociationBM,
  title={Dissociation between maternal and fetal toxicity of methyl isocyanate in mice and rats.},
  author={Daya R. Varma and I Guest and S. Smith and Shree Mulay},
  journal={Journal of toxicology and environmental health},
  year={1990},
  volume={30 1},
  pages={
          1-14
        }
}
  • D. Varma, I. Guest, S. Mulay
  • Published 1 May 1990
  • Medicine, Biology, Chemistry
  • Journal of toxicology and environmental health
The contribution of maternal hormonal changes and pulmonary damage on the fetal toxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was studied in mice and rats. Exposure to MIC decreased maternal plasma progesterone levels in mice that lost but not in mice that retained pregnancy. Fetal toxicity of MIC was not related to changes in maternal plasma corticosterone levels. Neither chronic administration of progesterone nor the suppression of pulmonary edema with dexamethasone decreased fetal toxicity of MIC… 
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  • Chemistry, Biology
    Journal of toxicology and environmental health
  • 1991
TLDR
The ability of methylamines to adversely affect fetal development suggests that these amines, especially trimethylamine, may act as endogenous teratogens under certain conditions.
Teratogenic and macromolecular synthesis inhibitory effects of trimethylamine on mouse embryos in culture.
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It is concluded that TMA exerts teratogenic effects on mouse embryos in culture and inhibits their growth by reducing macromolecular synthesis; these effects may not involve glutathione depletion or generation of free radicals.
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TLDR
It is concluded that SMG exerts embryotoxic and dysmorphogenic effects and may contribute to systemic toxicity of methyl isocyanate.
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TLDR
A substance-induced effect in the high-dose group cannot be excluded with certainty, although the relevance of an increase of this minor anomaly in doses which cause toxic effects in dams is limited and the number observed is within the limits of biological variability.
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TLDR
Maternal toxicity was observed at 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg/d as evidenced by decreased weight gain during treatment, while the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for maternal toxicity was 2 mg NaVO3/kg/.
The Bhopal accident and methyl isocyanate toxicity.
TLDR
MIC may be the most toxic of all isocyanates because of its very high vapor pressure relative to other isocianates andBecause of its ability to exert toxic effects on numerous organ systems, which may explain some of the systemic effects of MIC.
Effects of Cocaine on Rat Embryo Development in Vivo and in Cultures
TLDR
It is concluded that cocaine possesses teratogenic potential that may be partly independent of maternal toxicity and was more toxic than procaine.
Scientific Basis for Swedish Occupational Standards XXII
TLDR
In studies in which pregnant pigs and rats were fed on cassava containing up to 1250 mg KCN/kg, the only observed toxic effects on reproduction were minor metabolic differences and lower relative organ weights in fetuses at doses affecting the mothers.
Pregnancy complications in Bhopal women exposed to methyl isocyanate vapor
TLDR
Pregnancy loss was higher in women who were in their first (58.8%) than in those who are in their second or third trimester of pregnancy during the MIC spill, and the 1–30‐day mortality rate was significantly greater than that recorded for the two years preceding the accident.
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References

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TLDR
The studies show that the effects of MIC in mice mimic many of the reproductive complications in Bhopal, with evidence of an increase in visceral abnormalities and a decrease in fetal and placental weights and in fetal skeleton sizes.
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TLDR
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  • D. Varma
  • Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The results demonstrate that exposure to MIC by inhalation results in bone marrow damage, indicating the systemic genotoxic/cytotoxic activity of MIC and/or reactive metabolites.
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TLDR
Decreased dynamic compliance and changes in two new measures of lung function (volume and time at zero expiratory intrapleural pressure) suggest that MIC-induced lung dysfunction also exhibited elements of a restrictive disease.
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