Mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
- Yasuko Rikihisa
- Clinical microbiology reviews
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Treatment options are limited for this entity, with doxycycline being the drug of choice. Certain fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin are active against A. phagocytophilum in vitro. We report a hospitalized patient with HGA who improved coincident with a 13-day course of levofloxacin therapy, but clinically and microbiologically relapsed 15 days after completion of treatment. Relapse of infection after levofloxacin therapy was reproduced in a severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mouse infection model. Quinolone therapy should not be considered curative of HGA.