Dissociation between implicit and explicit manifestations of awareness in early stage dementia: evidence from the emotional Stroop effect for dementia‐related words

  title={Dissociation between implicit and explicit manifestations of awareness in early stage dementia: evidence from the emotional Stroop effect for dementia‐related words},
  author={Anthony Martyr and Linda Clare and Sharon M. Nelis and Judith L. Roberts and Julia Robinson and Ilona Roth and Ivana S. Markov{\'a} and Robert T Woods and Christopher J. Whitaker and Robin G. Morris},
  journal={International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
To determine whether people with dementia (PwD), and carers of PwD, show a processing bias to dementia‐related words in an emotional Stroop task, and if so, whether the presence of such a bias is related to level of explicit awareness of the condition. 

The recall of dementia‐related and neutral words by people with dementia: The ironic process of thought suppression

This study tests whether participants with dementia showed lessened or enhanced recall and recognition of dementia‐related words compared with a control population.

More work on lack of awareness and insight in healthy people and psychiatric patients will assist model building

It is suggested that further research comparing implicit awareness of disability and objective metacognitive processes would be useful for theory development, as well as further understanding cognitive models of insight in the clinical domain.

Selective forgetting of self‐threatening statements: Mnemic neglect for dementia information in people with mild dementia

This selective forgetting is observed among healthy adults in the recall, but not the recognition, of self‐threatening feedback in the recalls of self-threatening feedback.

Changes in awareness of condition in people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia: Longitudinal findings from the IDEAL cohort

Investigating changes in awareness over time could further the understanding of surrounding concepts and reasons for impaired awareness and facilitate discussions about diagnosis and appropriate post‐diagnostic support.

Eliciting Implicit Awareness in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Task-Based Functional MRI Study

Background Recent models of anosognosia in dementia have suggested the existence of an implicit component of self-awareness about one’s cognitive impairment that may remain preserved and continue to

Behavioral Neurology Implicit behavioural change in response to cognitive tasks in Alzheimer’s disease

The findings suggest that implicit learning of task valence may be compromised in AD, but that initial moments of awareness may influence long term adaptation in unaware patients.

On the contribution of unconscious processes to implicit anosognosia

A review of the literature on anosognosia of hemiplegia and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, focuses on aspects of implicit anos Cognosia, with important implications for clinical management, in particular, failure of treatment in Alzheimer's patients.

Multidimensional Assessment of Awareness in Early-Stage Dementia: A Cluster Analytic Approach

Multidimensional assessment offers a more robust approach to classifying PwD according to level of awareness and hence to examining correlates and predictors of awareness.

Do Psychosis Patients with Poor Insight Show Implicit Awareness on the Emotional Stroop Task?

Psychosis-related words were less threatening and less self-relevant to psychosis patients with less insight, suggesting that the lack of awareness such patients have of their illness is genuine and more likely to be mediated by lower-level information processing mechanisms than strategies such as conscious, motivated denial.

Metacognition and insight in health, psychosis and dementia: relationship with mood and neurocognition

Investigation of similarities and differences between insight and experimental measures of metacognitive efficiency across the adult life span and in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis, early-stage dementia (ED) and depression indicates age, memory and mood mediate metac cognitive efficiency in healthy adults, while results suggest that mood is associated with cognitive insight in FEP, but not metacognition in either early dementia or psychosis.



Distinguishing depression from dementia in later life: a pilot study employing the Emotional Stroop task

This work examined whether people with depression could be differentiated from those with dementia on their performance on a task that examines attentional bias to depression related material.

Awareness in dementia: A review of clinical correlates

Most inconsistencies were found with regard to an association between depression and higher levels of awareness, and unawareness seems to be related to difficulties in daily life functioning, increased caregiver burden, and deterioration in global dementia severity.

Cognitive and neuropathologic correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test performance in Alzheimer's disease.

Principal-components analyses demonstrated a dissociation in the factor structure of the Stroop trials between NC participants and AD patients, suggesting that disruption of semantic knowledge and speeded verbal processing in AD may be a major contributor to impairment on the incongruent trial.

Inhibitory control and affective valence processing in dementia of the Alzheimer type.

Emotional and traditional Stroop effects were contrasted in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-equated, non-demented individuals to examine (a) differences in the speed of processing

Inhibitory Breakdown and Dementia of the Alzheimer Type: A General Phenomenon?

The results showed that DAT patients failed to produce Negative Priming effects and were severely impaired in the Stroop task, suggesting that in the early stages of the disease, not all inhibitory mechanisms are uniformly impaired.

The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology.

The authors review research showing that patients are often slower to name the color of a word associated with concerns relevant to their clinical condition and address the causes and mechanisms underlying the phenomenon, focusing on J.L. McClelland's parallel distributed processing model.

Domain-Specific Anosognosia in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

In AD patients anosognosia for cognitive, functional and psychopathological domains dissociated from one another, as shown by lack of significant correlations between the three indices, whereas in VD patients these three anosogosic domains were closely related, indicating a generalised unawareness.

Awareness in dementia: A review of assessment methods and measures

A comprehensive range of literature on awareness in dementia published in peer-reviewed journals during the last 15 years was reviewed with the aim of extracting details of the methods and

Awareness in early-stage Alzheimer's disease: a review of methods and evidence.

  • L. Clare
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The British journal of clinical psychology
  • 2004
Greater clarity about theoretical frameworks, and improved assessment methods, are required in order to enhance understanding of variations in awareness in early-stage AD.