Dissociation and childhood abuse were studied in female eating disorder outpatients in Japan. A self-report version of the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), which includes data on physical and sexual abuse, and the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) were used. Nine of 41 subjects who completed the DDIS reported symptoms suggesting DSM-III-R multiple personality, and 6 of the 39 subjects who completed the DES scored over 30 (reflecting a high likelihood of posttraumatic stress or multiple personality). Subjects' sexual abuse history rates were considerably greater then those in the Japanese general population. Though physical abuse history was associated with high dissociation, no difference was seen between the high and low dissociators in sexual abuse histories.