Disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: two different diseases – a critical review

@article{Poser2007DisseminatedEA,
  title={Disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: two different diseases – a critical review},
  author={Charles M. Poser and Vesna V. Brinar},
  journal={Acta Neurologica Scandinavica},
  year={2007},
  volume={116}
}
  • C. Poser, V. Brinar
  • Published 1 October 2007
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
The practice of initiating immunomodulatory treatment immediately after a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) emphasizes the need to distinguish between disseminated encephalomyelitis (DEM) and MS. Their clinical, genetic, imaging, and histopathological characteristics establish that they are distinct disease entities. Acute and recurrent DEM are more common in children, but also occur in adults. DEM is polysymptomatic and includes signs and symptoms rarely… 
Disseminated encephalomyelitis in adults
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
  • S. Tenembaum
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology
  • 2013
Unihemispheric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Case Report
TLDR
A 31-year-old woman presenting with headache, confusion, left hemiparesis and hemihypoesthesia preceded by an infection is reported, which fully recovered after intravenous methylprednisolone treatment.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
TLDR
The main features of ADEM are described, focusing in particular particular on the factors that influence its outcome and can guide the process of differential diagnosis.
1H-MRS for the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: insight into the acute-disease stage
TLDR
Consistent and unique MRS changes in metabolite ratios between the acute and chronic presentations of the disease were found and might assist in the early diagnosis of ADEM.
Devic syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma.
CENTRAL MYELIN AND DEMYELINATION
TLDR
A case of central demyelination likely Multiple Sclerosis is reported, 44yrs female admitted with subacute onset of weakness of all four limbs, more on left side and sensory disturbance in the form of numbness and tingling in all four limb, associated with urinary urgency and constipation.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 100 REFERENCES
Non-MS recurrent demyelinating diseases
  • V. Brinar
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
  • 2004
Multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and related conditions.
  • R. Rust
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Seminars in pediatric neurology
  • 2000
TLDR
MS, ADEM, and the pertinent syndromic subtypes, their differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are considered in this review.
Clinical and neuroradiologic features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children
TLDR
The authors suggest that a viral prodrome, early-onset ataxia, high lesion load on MRI, involvement of the deep gray matter, and absence of oligoclonal bands are more indicative of ADEM.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: A follow-up study of 40 adult patients
TLDR
No useful diagnostic criteria is found for the differentiation of a first episode of MS from monophasic ADEM, and the term ADEM may still be employed as a description of a clinical syndrome, but should not be used as a distinct entity until reliable diagnostic criteria have been developed.
Sudden onset aphasic hemiplegia: an unusual manifestation of disseminated encephalomyelitis
The differential diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: outcome and prognosis.
TLDR
Clinical picture at first relapse may help to identify patients likely to experience multiple relapses, and the timing and duration of steroid treatment affects outcome.
ADEM: distinct disease or part of the MS spectrum?
TLDR
This textbook view of ADEM is based on a compilation of features extracted from single cases and small cases, which shows that high-dose steroids, plasma exchange, IVIg, immunomodulators, and hypothermia have been tried, no treatment is established.
Pure optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis in Japan.
TLDR
Though pure OSMS was heterogeneous with regard to clinical severity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, this form of multiple sclerosis was characterized by a definite female preponderance and negative OB that distinguished it from CMS.
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in North Indian Children: Clinical Profile and Follow-Up
TLDR
The presentation of pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in developing countries is similar to that in developed countries, and in spite of an aggressive presentation, most children respond well to corticosteroids.
...
...