Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment.

@article{Sukhodolsky2003DisruptiveBI,
  title={Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment.},
  author={Denis G. Sukhodolsky and Lawrence Scahill and Heping Zhang and Bradley S. Peterson and Robert A. King and Paul J. Lombroso and Lily Katsovich and Diane B. Findley and James Frederick Leckman},
  journal={Journal of Developmental \& Behavioral Pediatrics},
  year={2003},
  volume={24},
  pages={214}
}
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of disruptive behavior with social, adaptive, and family functioning in Tourette's syndrome (TS) with and without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD The sample included 207 children (144 boys and 63 girls) between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Forty-two children received a diagnosis of TS-only, 52 received a diagnosis of ADHD-only, 52 children had TS+ADHD, and there were 61 unaffected control children. Best-estimate DSM-IV… 
Tourette Syndrome–Associated Psychopathology: Roles of Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
TLDR
The findings suggest that tics, ADHD, and OCD symptoms differentially explain the variance in externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in individuals with TS, and support the notion that TS is itself a risk factor for behavioral problems.
Chronic tic disorders in children with ADHD
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CTD prevalence is higher in children with ADHD compared with controls, and confers substantial additional psychiatric and functional burden, and Clinicians need to consider CTD in both the initial assessment and ongoing management ofChildren with ADHD.
Tic Severity and Treatment in Children: The Effect of Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors
  • T. Pringsheim
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Child psychiatry and human development
  • 2017
TLDR
Children with ADHD were more likely to be treated for their tics within the first two years of diagnosis, and this association may relate to greater overall psychosocial impairment in children with this comorbidity.
Comorbid Behavioural Problems in Tourette's Syndrome are Positively Correlated with the Severity of Tic Symptoms
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It was found that delinquent behaviour, thought problems, attention problems, aggressive behaviour and externalizing are positively correlated with severity of tic symptoms.
Youths with ADHD with and without tic disorders: comorbid psychopathology, executive function and social adjustment.
Relative Contribution of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Tic Severity to Social and Behavioral Problems in Tic Disorders
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In patients with a tic disorder, the presence and severity of ADHD are the main predictors of associated behavioral and social problems.
Aggressive symptoms in children with tic disorders
TLDR
It is suggested that there is no difference in aggressive behavior between children with tics without comorbidities and healthy children, and it is possible that aggressive behavior inChildren with tic disorders is predominantly associated with comorbrid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Developmental psychopathology of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome – impact of ADHD
TLDR
Children with TS+ADHD have more comorbidities than the TS−ADHD group, whereas in both adolescent groups this did no longer hold for OCD and anxiety disorders, which indicates that in TS COMorbid ADHD is associated with high rates of externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas TS without ADHD isassociated only with internalize problems in adolescence.
The Presence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Worsen Psychosocial and Educational Problems in Tourette Syndrome
TLDR
There were significantly more psychosocial and educational problems in children with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy controls and a higher rate of these problems was also seen if the comorbidities attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or obsessive compulsive disorder were present.
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