Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment.

  title={Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment.},
  author={Denis G. Sukhodolsky and Lawrence Scahill and Heping Zhang and Bradley S. Peterson and Robert A. King and Paul J. Lombroso and Lily Katsovich and Diane B. Findley and James Frederick Leckman},
  journal={Journal of Developmental \& Behavioral Pediatrics},
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of disruptive behavior with social, adaptive, and family functioning in Tourette's syndrome (TS) with and without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD The sample included 207 children (144 boys and 63 girls) between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Forty-two children received a diagnosis of TS-only, 52 received a diagnosis of ADHD-only, 52 children had TS+ADHD, and there were 61 unaffected control children. Best-estimate DSM-IV… 
Tourette Syndrome–Associated Psychopathology: Roles of Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
The findings suggest that tics, ADHD, and OCD symptoms differentially explain the variance in externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in individuals with TS, and support the notion that TS is itself a risk factor for behavioral problems.
Chronic tic disorders in children with ADHD
CTD prevalence is higher in children with ADHD compared with controls, and confers substantial additional psychiatric and functional burden, and Clinicians need to consider CTD in both the initial assessment and ongoing management ofChildren with ADHD.
Tic Severity and Treatment in Children: The Effect of Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors
  • T. Pringsheim
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Child psychiatry and human development
  • 2017
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Comorbid Behavioural Problems in Tourette's Syndrome are Positively Correlated with the Severity of Tic Symptoms
It was found that delinquent behaviour, thought problems, attention problems, aggressive behaviour and externalizing are positively correlated with severity of tic symptoms.
Youths with ADHD with and without tic disorders: comorbid psychopathology, executive function and social adjustment.
Relative Contribution of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Tic Severity to Social and Behavioral Problems in Tic Disorders
In patients with a tic disorder, the presence and severity of ADHD are the main predictors of associated behavioral and social problems.
Aggressive symptoms in children with tic disorders
It is suggested that there is no difference in aggressive behavior between children with tics without comorbidities and healthy children, and it is possible that aggressive behavior inChildren with tic disorders is predominantly associated with comorbrid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Developmental psychopathology of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome – impact of ADHD
Children with TS+ADHD have more comorbidities than the TS−ADHD group, whereas in both adolescent groups this did no longer hold for OCD and anxiety disorders, which indicates that in TS COMorbid ADHD is associated with high rates of externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas TS without ADHD isassociated only with internalize problems in adolescence.
The Presence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Worsen Psychosocial and Educational Problems in Tourette Syndrome
There were significantly more psychosocial and educational problems in children with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy controls and a higher rate of these problems was also seen if the comorbidities attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or obsessive compulsive disorder were present.


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It is demonstrated that much of the social and behavioral dysfunction in children with TS is ADHD-specific andChildren with TS alone have a very different social-emotional profile than do those with TS plus ADHD.
Comparison of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid tic disorder.
The relatively higher rate of comorbidity in the ADHD/+tics group suggests that tics may be a marker for more severe symptomatology in clinic-referred samples of children with ADHD.
Disentangling the overlap between Tourette's disorder and ADHD.
These findings confirm previously noted associations between Tourette's syndrome and OCD but suggest that disruptive behavioral, mood, and anxiety disorders as well as cognitive dysfunctions may be accounted for by comorbidity with ADHD.
Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Tourette Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive—Compulsive Disorder
Findings provide additional evidence that aggressive behaviour observed in children with TS may be associated with comorbid ADHD or OCD, independent of tic severity or age.
A prospective longitudinal study of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.
Family functioning appears to play an important role in non-tic disorders as well as adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, and family, cognitive-behavioral, and interpersonal therapies should be considered to address the social-emotional difficulties that often accompany TS.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and problems in peer relations: predictions from childhood to adolescence.
Impairments in peer relations for ADHD youths, known to be common in childhood, also exist in adolescence and further research into the causes and treatment of poor social functioning in youths with ADHD is recommended.
Peer problems in Tourette's disorder.
It is concluded that social adjustment is a major difficulty for many children with Tourette's disorder, irrespective of tic severity.
Psychosocial and clinical correlates of ADHD in a community sample of school-age children.
The results support a dimensional approach to ADHD, where more severe forms of ADHD are associated with psychosocial adversity and psychiatric comorbidity.