Disruption of kilometre-sized asteroids by energetic collisions

  title={Disruption of kilometre-sized asteroids by energetic collisions},
  author={Erik Asphaug and Steven Jeffrey Ostro and Raymond Scott Hudson and Daniel J. Scheeres and W. Benz},
Recent numerical studies suggest that ‘rubble-pile’ asteroids (gravitationally bound aggregates of collisional debris) are common in the Solar System, and that self-gravitation may equal or exceed material cohesion for planetary bodies as small as several hundred metres. Because analytical scaling relations for impact cratering and disruption do not extend to this size regime, where gravity and material strength are both important, detailed simulations are needed to predict how small asteroids… 

Numerical simulations of asteroids modelled as gravitational aggregates with cohesion

Evidence is mounting that asteroids larger than a few hundred metres in diameter are gravitational aggregates of smaller, cohesive pieces. For example, images of 25143 Itokawa show a boulder-strewn

Effects of orbital ellipticity on collisional disruptions of rubble-pile asteroids

The behavior of debris ejected from asteroids after collisional disruptions has significant implications for asteroid evolution. Analytical approximations of the elliptic restricted three-body system

Catastrophic Disruptions Revisited

Abstract We use a smooth particle hydrodynamics method to simulate colliding rocky and icy bodies from centimeter scale to hundreds of kilometers in diameter in an effort to define self-consistently

Full numerical simulations of catastrophic small body collisions

Asteroid Interiors

Asteroids represent a geophysical frontier of considerable scientific importance, for these building blocks of planets preserve a compositional and mechanical record of the solar system’s origin.

How Many Rubble Piles Are in the Asteroid Belt

Abstract We have developed a new version of the code built by Campo Bagatin et al. (1994a, Planet. Space Sci. 42 , 1079–1092; 1994b, ibid. , 42 , 1099–1107) and Campo Bagatin (1998, Ph.D. thesis,

Direct N-body Simulations of Rubble Pile Collisions in Strong Tidal Fields: Applied to Saturn's F Ring

There is increasing evidence that many kilometer-sized bodies in the Solar System are piles of rubble bound together by gravity. We present results from a project to map the parameter space of

Rubble Pile Asteroids

  • K. Walsh
  • Geology, Physics
    Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • 2018
The moniker rubble pile is typically applied to all Solar System bodies >200 m and <∼10 km in diameter; in this size range, there is an abundance of evidence that nearly every object is bound



Catastrophic Impacts on Gravity Dominated Asteroids

We use the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method to simulate catastrophic collisions on silicate bodies whose impact response is dominated by gravity rather than material strength. Encounter speeds

Mechanical and geological effects of impact cratering on Ida

Asteroids respond to impact stresses differently from either laboratory specimens or large planets. Gravity is typically so small that seismic disturbances of a few cm s−1can devastate unconsolidated

On the fragmentation of asteroids and planetary satellites

Impact Craters on Asteroids: Does Gravity or Strength Control Their Size?

Abstract The formation of kilometer-size craters on asteroids is qualitatively different from the formation of meter-size (laboratory- and weapons-scale) craters on Earth. A numerical hydrocode model

Target Porosity Effects in Impact Cratering and Collisional Disruption

We present the results of a series of eight experimental hypervelocity impacts of soda lime glass projectiles into porous sintered aggregate glass targets with varying strengths and densities.

The Stickney Impact of Phobos: A Dynamical Model

Abstract Phobos, the largest moon of Mars, has dimensions typical of minor asteroids, approximately 19 × 22 × 27 km. It is probably the best studied small planetary body in the Solar System, imaged

Collisional Evolution of Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt Objects

The Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt contains a population of objects ≈103times that of the main asteroid belt, spread over a volume ≈103larger and with relative speeds ≈10 times lower. As for the asteroids,

Experiments and scaling laws for catastrophic collisions

The existing data on shattering impacts are reviewed using natural silicate, ice, and cement-mortar targets. A comprehensive data base containing the most important parameters describing these

Crater ejecta scaling laws - Fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis

A model of crater ejecta is constructed using dimensional analysis and a recently developed theory of energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. General relations are derived that provide a