A semi-micro column high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection for the determination of triazolam is described. The method was applied to determine plasma and brain microdialysate concentrations of triazolam after single intravenous bolus of 2.5 mg/kg to rat. The separation was achieved on a 250 x 1.5 mm i.d. C(18) column and the column effluent was monitored at 222 nm. The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 obtained using spiked plasma and artificial cerebrospinal fluid were 2.1 and 0.7 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day reproducibility of the present method were satisfactory with the highest relative standard deviation of 9.1 (n > or = 5). The present method was successfully applied to study the disposition of triazolam in rat (n = 5) by analyzing plasma and brain microdialysate samples.