The precise distance measurement of fast-moving rough surfaces is important in several applications such as lathe monitoring. A nonincremental interferometer based on two mutually tilted interference fringe systems has been realized for this task. The distance is coded in the phase difference between the generated interference signals corresponding to the fringe systems. Large tilting angles between the interference fringe systems are necessary for a high sensitivity. However, due to the speckle effect at rough surfaces, different envelopes and phase jumps of the interference signals occur. At large tilting angles, these signals become dissimilar, resulting in a small correlation coefficient and a high measurement uncertainty. Based on a matching of illumination and receiving optics, the correlation coefficient and the phase difference estimation have been improved significantly. For axial displacement measurements of recurring rough surfaces, laterally moving with velocities of 5 m/s, an uncertainty of 110 nm has been attained. For nonrecurring surfaces, a distance measurement uncertainty of 830 nm has been achieved. Incorporating the additionally measured lateral velocity and the rotational speed, the two-dimensional shape of rotating objects results. Since the measurement uncertainty of the displacement, distance, and shape is nearly independent of the lateral surface velocity, this technique is predestined for fast-rotating objects, such as crankshafts, camshafts, vacuum pump shafts, or turning parts of lathes.