Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae

  title={Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae},
  author={Marinus H. van IJzendoorn and Carlo Schuengel and Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg},
  journal={Development and Psychopathology},
  pages={225 - 250}
During the past 10 years nearly 80 studies on disorganized attachment involving more than 6,000 infant–parent dyads have been carried out. The current series of meta-analyses have established the reliability and discriminant validity of disorganized infant attachment. Although disorganized attachment behavior is necessarily difficult to observe and often subtle, many researchers have managed to become reliable coders. Furthermore, disorganized attachment shows modest short- and long-term… 

Attachment disorganization and controlling behavior in middle childhood: maternal and child precursors and correlates

The present study provided the first validity data for an observational measure of disorganization and control in middle childhood by presenting the validity of an instrument for coding both disorganized and role-reversed behavior from ages 7 to 9; the MCDC scales.

Attachment Relationship Experiences and Childhood Psychopathology

Qualitatively different types of attachments, which can be indentified by the end of the first year, are broadly predictive of subsequent adaptive outcomes for young children, and recent findings are described.

Disorganized Attachment and Personality Functioning in Adults: A Latent Class Analysis

The results highlight the possibility of identifying distinct classes of attachment organization, differentiated both by aspects of severity and interpersonal style, and shed light on the manifestation of attachment disorganization in adults.

Explaining Disorganized Attachment: Clues From Research On Mild-to-Moderately Undernourished Children in Chile

A wide range of data have demonstrated the Disorganized attachment pattern can be scored reliably, has good discriminant validity vis a vis important alternative interpretations, and is related to

Attachment in middle childhood: predictors, correlates, and implications for adaptation

Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that the overall history of responsive care was meaningfully associated with Security, Avoidance, and Disorganization at age 10, in both mother–child and father–child relationships, and that most recent care uniquely predicted Security.

Disorganized Infant, Child, and Adult Attachment: Collapse in Behavioral and Attentional Strategies

  • E. HesseM. Main
  • Psychology
    Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
  • 2000
This presentation focuses on the disorganized/disoriented (Group D) categories of infant, child, and adult attachment, and suggests that infant D attachment may at times represent a second-generation effect of the parent's own continuing unresolved responses to trauma.

Patterns of attachment in early infancy in normative samples, alternative caregiving systems, and high risk infants.

INTRODUCTION Scientific evidence gathered over the last decades has demonstrated that early attachment is a vital process for the understanding, prevention, and intervention of people's mental and

Middle Childhood Attachment Strategies: validation of an observational measure

Results provide preliminary evidence for the psychometric properties of the MCAS in that its behaviorally assessed patterns were associated with theoretically relevant constructs, including maternal warmth/acceptance and psychological control, and children’s social competence, depression, and behavioral problems.

Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

A strong case is made for the value of attachment theory for supportive work with families and for the development and evaluation of evidence-based caregiving interventions.

Representational and questionnaire measures of attachment: A meta-analysis of relations to child internalizing and externalizing problems.

A comprehensive examination of the literature on attachment and behavioral problems in children aged 3-18 years, focusing on the representational and questionnaire measures most commonly used in this age range, finds that disorganized attachment was associated with externalizing behavior.



Disorganized attachment behavior in infancy: Short-term stability, maternal and infant correlates, and risk-related subtypes

Abstract This study of 71 low-income mothers and infants examined whether the disorganized/disoriented (D) infant attachment classification is best viewed as a single category or whether at least two

Instability of Infant-Parent Attachment Security.

According to attachment theory, the infant during the second half of the first year of life develops an internal representation of the attachment relationship. Once formed, this representation is

Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders.

This paper reviews recent findings concerning D (disorganized/disoriented) attachment in infants and its correlates in unresolved parental traumas and proposes that D attachment in infancy may lead to increased vulnerability to dissociative disorders via a linking mechanism proposed by Main and Hesse (1990, 1992).

Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom.

The strongest single predictor of deviant levels of hostile behavior toward peers in the classroom was earlier disorganized/disoriented attachment status, with 71% of hostile preschoolers classified as disorganized in their attachment relationships in infancy.

Quality of toddler-mother attachment in children with Down syndrome: limits to interpretation of strange situation behavior.

Significant differences with respect to the distributions of cases to classification categories and withrespect to the interactive scale scores suggest that the Strange Situation may be measuring different aspects of behavior for children with Down Syndrome, even when they are tested at similar developmental age levels.

Attachment security in preschoolers with and without externalizing behavior problems: A replication

Abstract This study attempted to replicate previous findings that indicated that preschool-aged children with significant externalizing problems are more likely to have insecure attachment relations

Attachment in the context of high-risk conditions

Abstract The role of attachment in interaction with other relationships and conditions was investigated in relation to children's later psychosocial development (at ages 6 and 9). Thirty-nine

Sensitivity and attachment: a meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment.

It is concluded that in normal settings sensitivity is an important but not exclusive condition of attachment security, and several other dimensions of parenting are identified as playing an equally important role.

Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7.

It is indicated that child mental lag in the context of a disorganized attachment relationship constitutes 1 early step on the pathway to school-age externalizing behavior.

Sensitivity and Attachment: A Meta‐Analysis on Parental Antecedents of Infant Attachment

This meta-analysis included 66 studies (N = 4,176) on parental antecedents of attachment security. The question addressed was whether maternal sensitivity is associated with infant attachment