Disorders of water metabolism in children: hyponatremia and hypernatremia.

@article{Moritz2002DisordersOW,
  title={Disorders of water metabolism in children: hyponatremia and hypernatremia.},
  author={Michael L Moritz and Juan Carlos Ayus},
  journal={Pediatrics in review},
  year={2002},
  volume={23 11},
  pages={
          371-80
        }
}
1. Michael L. Moritz, MD* 2. Juan Carlos Ayus, MD† 1. *Assistant Professor of Pediatric Nephrology, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 2. †Professor of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the clinical manifestations of hyponatremic encephalopathy. 2. Identify the risk factors for developing hyponatremic encephalopathy. 3. List the risk factors for developing cerebral demyelination following the correction of hyponatremia. 4. Characterize the clinical manifestations of hypernatremia. 5. Identify patients at greatest risk for developing hypernatremia. In conjunction with the tremendous medical advances of the past century, an increasing number of hospitalized patients are dependent on parenteral fluids. Caring for children who have complex medical conditions has resulted in new challenges for prescribing parenteral therapy to maintain sodium and water homeostasis; most electrolyte disturbances occur in the hospital. Although the kidneys play an important role in the development of disorders in water handling, most of the morbidity and mortality results from central nervous system dysfunction (Table 1). This review discusses common disorders of water metabolism, emphasizing the neurologic sequelae. [...] Key MethodView this table: Table 1. Abnormalities of Water Metabolism Leading to Brain Damage Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L (135 mmol/L). It is one of the most common electrolyte disorders encountered in hospitals, occurring in approximately 3% of hospitalized children. The cause usually is identified easily, and the condition rarely is fatal, but sometimes the cause can be elusive and mortality can result from inappropriate therapy. ### Pathogenesis Under…Expand
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  • 2019
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