Disorders of extreme stress: The empirical foundation of a complex adaptation to trauma.

  title={Disorders of extreme stress: The empirical foundation of a complex adaptation to trauma.},
  author={Bessel A. van der Kolk and Susan Roth and David Pelcovitz and Susanne Sunday and Joseph Spinazzola},
  journal={Journal of traumatic stress},
  volume={18 5},
Children and adults exposed to chronic interpersonal trauma consistently demonstrate psychological disturbances that are not captured in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. The DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Field Trial studied 400 treatment-seeking traumatized individuals and 128 community residents and found that victims of prolonged interpersonal trauma, particularly trauma early in the life cycle, had a high incidence of problems with (a) regulation of… Expand
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