Lectures on Classical Differential Geometry, 2nd ed
- D. J. Struik
When a current flows in a conductor, the electron wind can cause atoms to diffuse. This paper considers the consequences of such diffusion along dislocation cores. A dislocation climbing in a crystal is viewed as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic system to define the force that drives self-diffusion along the core. Not only is a dislocation a mass-transport pipe, it also climbs and generates more dislocations—all in the electron wind. A prismatic loop climbs like a rigid disk, as atoms electro-migrate along the core from one edge of the loop to the other. Each loop is therefore a mass carrier responding to an electric current. Interstitial and vacancy loops can be simultaneously generated and subsequently climb in the opposite directions. The process can transport mass in single crystal or bamboo-like interconnects at moderate temperatures.