Disinformation squared

  title={Disinformation squared},
  author={Erhard Geissler and Robert Hunt Sprinkle},
  booktitle={Politics and the Life Sciences},
Abstract Background. When in May 1983 the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first securely attributed to a virus, eventually called the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many controversies arose. Among these was one centering on HIV's origin. A startling hypothesis, called here the “HIV-from-Fort-Detrick myth,” asserted that HIV had been a product, accidental or intentional, of bioweaponry research. While its earliest identifiable contributors were in the West, this myth's most… Expand
Operation “Denver”
Abstract This second part of a two-part article moves ahead in showing how the East German Ministry for State Security (Stasi) came to play a key role in the disinformation campaign launched by theExpand
Operation “Denver”: The East German Ministry of State Security and the KGB's AIDS Disinformation Campaign, 1985–1986 (Part 1)
There has been much debate in recent years about the role of the East German Ministry for State Security (Stasi) in the disinformation campaign launched in the early 1980s by the Soviet StateExpand
A Bioweapon or a Hoax? The Link Between Distinct Conspiracy Beliefs About the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak and Pandemic Behavior
During the coronavirus disease pandemic rising in 2020, governments and nongovernmental organizations across the globe have taken great efforts to curb the infection rate by promoting or legallyExpand
Past as Prologue? The Risk of Adoption of Chemical and Biological Weapons by Non-State Actors in the EU
  • J. Revill
  • Sociology
  • European Journal of Risk Regulation
  • 2017
Abstract There have been relatively few serious incidents of chemical or biological terrorism in Europe; however, there is growing concern over how non-state groups might exploit chemistry andExpand
The History of Biological Weapons Use: What We Know and What We Don't.
  • W. Carus
  • Engineering, Medicine
  • Health security
  • 2015
This article critically reviews the literature on the history of biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes and indicates that some supposed uses of biological weapons never took place or are poorly substantiated. Expand
COVID-19's (mis)information ecosystem on Twitter: How partisanship boosts the spread of conspiracy narratives on German speaking Twitter
It was showed that contrary to other studies, automated accounts do not significantly influence the spread of misinformation in the German speaking Twitter sphere, and the political orientation of users correlates with the volume of content users contribute to the dissemination of conspiracy narratives, implying that partisan communicators have a higher motivation to take part in conspiratorial discussions on Twitter. Expand
Disinformation Cascades, Espionage & Counter-Intelligence
ABSTRACT Information cascades occur when decision-makers beyond some point in a decision-making sequence find that it is optimal to follow the decision that others have taken even if their ownExpand
AIDS und seine Erreger – ein Gespinst von Hypothesen, Erkenntnissen und Verschwörungstheorien
Wenn es um Verschworungstheorien geht, wird haufig die erworbene Immunschwache, das „acquired immunodeficiency syndrom“ AIDS, als besonders dramatisches Beispiel angefuhrt. The AIDS Conspiracy wurdeExpand


AIDS, Africa And Racism
It is argued that to "prove" that AIDS appeared in central Africa before it appeared in the U.S. patients in Africa with wasting diseases were retrospectively diagnosed as having had AIDS without substantial evidence. Expand
AIDS Virus Infection: Prognosis and Transmission
  • J. Seale
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
  • 1985
In the four years since the first cases were reported, much of the natural history of the disease has become clear and it is now clear that homosexuality, promiscuity and drug abuse cannot cause AIDS without infection with the AIDS virus; conversely, infections with the virus is potentially lethal to all men, women and children irrespective of life-style or sexual activity. Expand
Africa and the AIDS myth.
It appears that AIDS cases are actually overreported from Africa--not underreported--due to confusion with conditions such as malnutrition and tropical diseases. Expand
AIDS in the Two Berlins
In September 1987 West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl welcomed the German Democratic Republic's Party Chairman Erich Honneker to Bonn for the first time, and with the full ceremony attendant upon aExpand
The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond
Using HIV-1 gene sequences recovered from archival samples from some of the earliest known Haitian AIDS patients, it is found that subtype B likely moved from Africa to Haiti in or around 1966 and then spread there for some years before successfully dispersing elsewhere. Expand
HIV molecular epidemiology: transmission and adaptation to human populations
Insights into the origin of HIV and its evolution between populations and within individuals is essential to understanding HIV pathogenesis and imperative for the design of effective biomedical interventions such as vaccines. Expand
Is AIDS Man-Made?
The River A Journey to the Source of HIVand AIDS. Edward Hooper. Little, Brown, New York, 1999. 1104 pp. $35. ISBN 0-316-37261-7. Penguin, London, 1999. 1104 pp. £25. ISBN 0-7139-9335-9. Although ourExpand
The evolution of HIV-1 and the origin of AIDS
  • P. Sharp, B. Hahn
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
The origin of AIDS is more ancient than the origin of HIV-1, and tracing the genetic changes that occurred as monkey viruses adapted to infect first chimpanzees and then humans may provide insights into the causes of the pathogenicity of these viruses. Expand
The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History
  • J. Guillemin
  • Engineering, Political Science
  • Politics and the Life Sciences
  • 2013
What will be the legacy of the Soviet Union? For much of its seventy-three years, its totalitarian government punished citizens with mass internal exile, censorship and heavy restrictions on travel,Expand
Isolation and partial characterization of an HIV-related virus occurring naturally in chimpanzees in Gabon.
Nucleic acid hybridization experiments appear to indicate that the retrovirus isolated from wild-born chimpanzees, designated SIVcpz-GAB-1 (simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzee), is different from HIV-1 and HIV-2 and the other SIVs. Expand