A functional comparison of cardiac troponin C from representatives of three vertebrate taxa: Linking phylogeny and protein function.
The contractile response of the heart can be altered by disease-related protein modifications to numerous contractile proteins. By utilizing an IAANS labeled fluorescent troponin C, [Formula: see text], we examined the effects of ten disease-related troponin modifications on the Ca(2+) binding properties of the troponin complex and the reconstituted thin filament. The selected modifications are associated with a broad range of cardiac diseases: three subtypes of familial cardiomyopathies (dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive) and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of the protein modifications had no effect on the Ca(2+) binding properties of the isolated troponin complex. However, when incorporated into the thin filament, dilated cardiomyopathy mutations desensitized (up to 3.3-fold), while hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy mutations, and ischemia-induced truncation of troponin I, sensitized the thin filament to Ca(2+) (up to 6.3-fold). Kinetically, the dilated cardiomyopathy mutations increased the rate of Ca(2+) dissociation from the thin filament (up to 2.5-fold), while the hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy mutations, and the ischemia-induced truncation of troponin I decreased the rate (up to 2-fold). The protein modifications also increased (up to 5.4-fold) or decreased (up to 2.5-fold) the apparent rate of Ca(2+) association to the thin filament. Thus, the disease-related protein modifications alter Ca(2+) binding by influencing both the association and dissociation rates of thin filament Ca(2+) exchange. These alterations in Ca(2+) exchange kinetics influenced the response of the thin filament to artificial Ca(2+) transients generated in a stopped-flow apparatus. Troponin C may act as a hub, sensing physiological and pathological stimuli to modulate the Ca(2+)-binding properties of the thin filament and influence the contractile performance of the heart.