Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes

@article{Zhou2005DiscreteHO,
  title={Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes},
  author={Wei‐Xing Zhou and Didier Sornette and Russell A. Hill and Robin I. M. Dunbar},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
  year={2005},
  volume={272},
  pages={439 - 444}
}
The ‘social brain hypothesis’ for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non–human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine… 

Figures from this paper

Social complexity and the fractal structure of group size in primate social evolution
TLDR
It is argued that the grades themselves represent glass ceilings on animals' capacity to maintain social and spatial coherence during foraging and that, in order to evolve more highly bonded groups, species have to be able to invest in costly forms of cognition.
Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world
TLDR
This work analyzes the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which they know all about their various group memberships at different layers.
Network scaling reveals consistent fractal pattern in hierarchical mammalian societies
TLDR
The origin of the hierarchical, fractal-like organization of mammalian social systems as a fundamental question is identified and shown to hold for four mammalian taxa living in multi-level social systems.
The complex structure of hunter–gatherer social networks
TLDR
It is shown that population structure is indeed self-similar or fractal-like with the number of individuals or groups belonging to each successively higher level of organization exhibiting a constant ratio close to 4, and suggested that human social networks self-organize in response to similar optimization principles found behind the formation of many complex systems in nature.
The Social Brain
The social-brain hypothesis refers to a quantitative relationship between social-group size and neocortex volume in monkeys and apes. This relationship predicts a group size of approximately 150 for
Network Structure and Social Complexity in Primates
TLDR
Data is used on primate grooming networks to show that three different social grades can be differentiated in terms of network structuring, which seems to arise from a glass ceiling imposed on group size by limits on the time available for social grooming.
Social Relationships, Social Cognition, and the Evolution of Mind in Primates
TLDR
The comparative study of social cognition in animals remains a work in progress; for all its richness, nonhuman primate social cognition remains strikingly different from that found in humans.
Constraints on the evolution of social institutions and their implications for information flow
TLDR
An analytical model parameterized by contact frequencies is used to show that there may be little advantage in having a network larger than ~150 for the purposes of information exchange, and a Monte Carlo simulation model is presented to demonstrate that structure significantly impedes the rate of information flow in structured communities.
Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure
TLDR
It is demonstrated that quantitative variation in the number of friends an individual declares on a web-based social networking service reliably predicted grey matter density in the right superior temporal sulcus, left middle temporal gyrus and entorhinal cortex, previously implicated in social perception and associative memory.
Evolution of Human-Like Social Grooming Strategies Regarding Richness and Group Size
Human social strategies have evolved as an adaption to behave in complex societies. In such societies, humans intensively tend to cooperate with their closer friends, because they have to distribute
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans
TLDR
It is suggested that the evolution of large groups in the human lineage depended on developing a more efficient method for time-sharing the processes of social bonding and that language uniquely fulfills this requirement.
Neocortex size and social network size in primates
TLDR
It is shown that, in respect of neocortex size, there are as many as four statistically distinct grades within the primates (including humans), and analysis of the patterns of grooming among males and females suggested that large primate social groups often consist of a set of smaller female subgroups that are linked by individual males.
Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates
Neocortical development and social structure in primates
TLDR
The results suggest that neocortical development is associated with differences in social structure among primates.
Evolution in the Social Brain
TLDR
It is suggested that it may have been the particular demands of the more intense forms of pairbonding that was the critical factor that triggered this evolutionary development.
Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates
  • R. Byrne, N. Corp
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
TLDR
It is shown that the use of deception within the primates is well predicted by the neocortical volume, when observer effort is controlled for; by contrast, neither the size of the rest of the brain nor the group size exert significant effects.
Social network size in humans
TLDR
Analysis of social network size in contemporary Western society based on the exchange of Christmas cards suggests that there may be cognitive constraints on network size.
Social networks, support cliques, and kinship
Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical
Discrete scale invariance and complex dimensions
Primate social systems
TLDR
This chapter discusses Primates and their Societies, social Evolution in Baboons, and Social Evolution in the Great Apes, as well as models as Descriptive Tools and Models as Analytical Tools, and the problem of Monogamy.
...
...