Discovery of novel representatives of bilaterian neuropeptide families and reconstruction of neuropeptide precursor evolution in ophiuroid echinoderms

@article{Zandawala2017DiscoveryON,
  title={Discovery of novel representatives of bilaterian neuropeptide families and reconstruction of neuropeptide precursor evolution in ophiuroid echinoderms},
  author={Meet Zandawala and Ismail Moghul and Luis Alfonso Ya{\~n}ez Guerra and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Delroisse and Nikara Abylkassimova and Andrew F. Hugall and Timothy D O’hara and Maurice R. Elphick},
  journal={Open Biology},
  year={2017},
  volume={7}
}
Neuropeptides are a diverse class of intercellular signalling molecules that mediate neuronal regulation of many physiological and behavioural processes. Recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing are enabling identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in species from a growing variety of animal taxa, providing new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling. Here, detailed analysis of transcriptome sequence data from three brittle star species, Ophionotus victoriae… 
Pre-metazoan origin of neuropeptide signalling
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The findings indicate that signalling by secreted neuropeptide homologs has pre-metazoan origins and thus evolved before neurons, suggesting that prohormone processing occurs also in choanoflagellates.
Premetazoan Origin of Neuropeptide Signaling
TLDR
It is revealed that secreted neuropeptide homologs derived from longer precursors have premetazoan origins and thus evolved before neurons, suggesting that prohormone processing occurs also in choanoflagellates.
Discovery and functional characterisation of a luqin-type neuropeptide signalling system in a deuterostome
TLDR
This work characterised luqin-type signalling for the first time in an ambulacrarian – the starfish Asterias rubens (phylum Echinodermata) and revealed that ArLQ causes dose-dependent relaxation of tube feet.
Echinoderms provide missing link in the evolution of PrRP/sNPF-type neuropeptide signalling
TLDR
Investigation of the occurrence of NPY/NPF/PrRP/sNPF-related signalling systems in a deuterostome invertebrate phylum – the Echinodermata indicates that PrRP-type and sNPf-type signalling systems are orthologous and originated as a paralog ofNPY/ NPF- type signalling in Urbilateria.
Evolution and Comparative Physiology of Luqin-Type Neuropeptide Signaling
TLDR
Phylogenetic and pharmacological studies have revealed that orthologous G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate effects of luqin-type neuropeptides in spiralians, ecdysozoans, and ambulacrarians.
Functional characterization of a second pedal peptide/orcokinin‐type neuropeptide signaling system in the starfish Asterias rubens
TLDR
There are similarities in the expression patterns of ArPPLNP1 and ArP PLNP2 but the data also indicate specialization in the roles of neuropeptides derived from these two PP/OK‐type precursors in starfish.
Urbilaterian origin and evolution of sNPF-type neuropeptide signalling
TLDR
The discovery of a neuropeptide (pQDRSKAMQAERTGQLRRLNPRF-NH2) that is the ligand for an sNPF-type receptor in a deuterostome, the starfish Asterias rubens is reported, demonstrating the importance of experimental studies on echinoderms for reconstructing the evolutionary history of neuropeptic signalling systems.
Pedal peptide/orcokinin‐type neuropeptide signaling in a deuterostome: The anatomy and pharmacology of starfish myorelaxant peptide in Asterias rubens
Pedal peptide (PP) and orcokinin (OK) are related neuropeptides that were discovered in protostomian invertebrates (mollusks, arthropods). However, analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data has
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