Discovery of an X-ray afterglow associated with the γ-ray burst of 28 February 1997

  title={Discovery of an X-ray afterglow associated with the $\gamma$-ray burst of 28 February 1997},
  author={Enrico Costa and Filippo Frontera and John Heise and Marco Feroci and Jean in 't Zand and Fabrizio Fiore and Maria Nerina Cinti and Daniele Dal Fiume and Luciano Nicastro and Mauro Orlandini and Eliana Palazzi and Massimo Rapisarda and Guido Zavattini and Rieks Jager and Arvind N. Parmar and Alan Owens and Silvano Molendi and G Cusumano and Maria Concetta Maccarone and S. Giarrusso and Alessandro Coletta and Lucio Angelo Antonelli and Paolo Giommi and J. Muller and Luigi Piro and R. C. Butler},
Establishing the nature of γ-ray bursts is one of the greatest challenges in high-energy astrophysics. The distribution of these bursts is isotropic across the sky, but inhomogeneous in space, with a deficit of faint bursts. It is currently unknown whether γ-ray bursts are produced in our Galaxy or at cosmological distances. The detection and identification of counterparts at other wavelengths are seen as crucial for resolving the origin of the events. Here we report the detection by the Beppo… 

The radio afterglow from the γ-ray burst of 8 May 1997

Important insight into the nature of γ-ray bursts (GRBs) has been gained in recent months mainly due to the immediate, precise localization of the bursts and the discovery of relatively long-lived

Optical afterglow of the γ-ray burst of 14 December 1997

The very recent detection of the faint host galaxy of one γ-ray burst and the determination of a cosmological redshift for another, demonstrates that these events are the most luminous phenomena in

An unusual supernova in the error box of the γ-ray burst of 25 April 1998

The discovery of afterglows associated with γ-ray bursts at X-ray, optical and radio wavelengths and the measurement of the redshifts of some of these events, has established that γ-ray bursts lie at

The optical counterpart to the γ-ray burst GRB970508

Understanding the nature of the γ-ray burst phenomenon is one of the outstanding problems of modern astrophysics. The identification of counterparts at optical wavelengths is considered a crucial

The X-Ray Afterglow of the Gamma-Ray Burst of 1997 May 8:Spectral Variability and Possible Evidence of an Iron Line

We report the possible detection (99.3% of statistical significance) of redshifted iron line emission in the X-ray afterglow of gamma-ray burst GRB 970508 observed by BeppoSAX. Its energy is

The afterglow, redshift and extreme energetics of the γ-ray burst of 23 January 1999

Long-lived emission, known as afterglow, has now been detected from about a dozen γ-ray bursts. Distance determinations place the bursts at cosmological distances, with redshifts, z, ranging from ∼1

X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the γ-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the γ-ray burst phenomenon. Along

Discovery of the short γ-ray burst GRB 050709

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) fall into two classes: short-hard and long-soft bursts. The latter are now known to have X-ray and optical afterglows, to occur at cosmological distances in star-forming

The X-Ray Characteristics of a Classical Gamma-Ray Burst and Its Afterglow

The serendipitous observation of GRB 780506 by coaligned γ-ray (HEAO 1 A-4 0.02-6 MeV) and X-ray (HEAO 1 A-2 2-60 keV) instruments during a 6 hr pointing at a blank section of the sky gave us

Gamma-ray Bursts

Since their discovery in 1967, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been puzzling to astrophysicists. With the advent of a new generation of X-ray satellites in the late 90’s, it was possible to carry out



Transient optical emission from the error box of the γ-ray burst of 28 February 1997

For almost a quarter of a century1, the origin of γ-ray bursts— brief, energetic bursts of high-energy photons—has remained unknown. The detection of a counterpart at another wavelength has long been

Gamma-Ray Bursts

The present status of gamma-ray burst research is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent observations of their temporal, spectral, and global distribution properties. The observed sky distribution of

Early detection of the Optical Transient following the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 970228

The optical counterpart of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 970228, discovered by Groot et al. (IAU Circ. 6584), is also detected in the B and R frames obtained about 4 hours earlier at the Bologna

Third Interplanetary Network Localization, Time History, Fluence, Peak Flux, and Distance Lower Limit of the 1997 February 28 Gamma-Ray Burst

The gamma-ray burst of 1997 February 28 was localized using the arrival time analysis method with the Ulysses, BeppoSAX, and WIND spacecraft. The result is a ±31.″5 (3 σ) wide annulus of possible

ASCA observations of deep ROSAT fields — I. The nature of the X-ray source populations

We present ASCA GIS observations (total exposure 100-200 ksec) of three fields which form part of our deep ROSAT survey. We detect 26 sources down to a limiting flux (2-10 keV) of 5x10^{-14} erg cm-2

BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy

The X-ray satellite SAX, a major program of the Italian Space Agency with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aereospace Programs, was launched on April 30 1996 from Cape Canaveral. After

SAX: the wideband mission for x-ray astronomy

ABSTRACT In the framework of past and future X-ray missions the SAX satellite, to be launched in March 1996, stands out for its very wide spectral coverage from 0. 1 to 200 keV, with well balanced

The Wide Field Cameras onboard the BeppoSAX X-ray Astronomy Satellite

The two Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) cur- rently flying on the Italian/Dutch X-ray satellite BeppoSAX, image the X-ray sky in the energy range of 1:8 28 keV. The eld of view is 20, the angular resolu-

The high pressure gas scintillation proportional counter on-board the BeppoSAX X-ray astronomy satellite

In this paper we describe the High Pressure Gas Scintillation Proportion Counter, one of the Narrow Field Instrument of the X–ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX. Sensitive in the 4-120 keV band, the