Discovery of a novel neurophysin-associated neuropeptide that triggers cardiac stomach contraction and retraction in starfish

  title={Discovery of a novel neurophysin-associated neuropeptide that triggers cardiac stomach contraction and retraction in starfish},
  author={Dean C. Semmens and Robyn E Dane and Mahesh R. Pancholi and Susan E Slade and James H. Scrivens and Maurice R. Elphick},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  pages={4047 - 4053}
SUMMARY Feeding in starfish is a remarkable process in which the cardiac stomach is everted over prey and then retracted when prey tissue has been resorbed. Previous studies have revealed that SALMFamide-type neuropeptides trigger cardiac stomach relaxation and eversion in the starfish Asterias rubens. We hypothesized, therefore, that a counteracting neuropeptide system controls cardiac stomach contraction and retraction. Members of the NG peptide family cause muscle contraction in other… 
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NG peptides: a novel family of neurophysin-associated neuropeptides.
SALMFamide neuropeptides cause relaxation and eversion of the cardiac stomach in starfish
It is shown that two neuropeptides (S1 and S2) belonging to a family of echinoderm neuropeptic called SALMFamides cause concentration–dependent relaxation of the cardiac stomach in vitro, with S2 being 10 to 20 times more potent than S1.
NGFFFamide and echinotocin: structurally unrelated myoactive neuropeptides derived from neurophysin-containing precursors in sea urchins
Both NGFFFamide and echinotocin cause contraction of tube foot and oesophagus preparations from the sea urchin Echinus esculentus, consistent with the myoactivity of NGIWYamide in sea cucumbers and the myOactivity of vasopressin/oxytocin-like peptides in other animal phyla.
The Protein Precursors of Peptides That Affect the Mechanics of Connective Tissue and/or Muscle in the Echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus
Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen, suggesting that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins) that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.
Distribution and action of SALMFamide neuropeptides in the starfish Asterias rubens.
The production and characterisation of an S2-specific antiserum designated CLII is described, which has been used in a radioimmunoassay to measure S1 and S2 levels in extracts of body parts from the starfish Asterias rubens.
A genomic view of the sea urchin nervous system.
NGIWYamide-induced Contraction of Tube Feet and Distribution of NGIWYamide-like Immunoreactivity in Nerves of the Starfish Asterina pectinifera
The results suggest that NGIWYamide or an NGIwYamide-like peptide exists in starfish and functions as a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator.
Molecular evolution of peptidergic signaling systems in bilaterians
This work interrogated genomic sequence databases and used phylogenetic reconstruction tools to show that a large fraction of human PSs were already present in the last common ancestor of flies, mollusks, urchins, and mammals, and indicated that many vertebrate and arthropod PSs that were previously thought to be phyla specific are in fact of bilaterian origin.
The SALMFamides: a new family of neuropeptides isolated from an echinoderm
S1 and S2 are the first neuropeptides identified in species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata, and share minimal sequence identity with members of the family of FMRFamide-like peptides so they are designated as founder members of a new family, the SALMFamides.
Localization of the neuropeptide NGIWYamide in the holothurian nervous system and its effects on muscular contraction
Labelled nerve fibres from the hyponeural part of the radial nerve running towards the circular muscle and from the podial nerve into the body wall dermis suggest that NGIWYamide controls both muscle and connective tissue.