Discovery of a cool planet of 5.5 Earth masses through gravitational microlensing

  title={Discovery of a cool planet of 5.5 Earth masses through gravitational microlensing},
  author={Jean Philippe Beaulieu and David P. Bennett and Pascal Fouqu{\'e} and A. Williams and Martin Dominik and U. G. J{\o}rgensen and Daniel Kubas and Arnaud Cassan and Ch. Coutures and John G. Greenhill and K. M. Hill and John W Menzies and Penny Sackett and Michael D. Albrow and St{\'e}phane Brillant and John A. R. Caldwell and Johannes J. Calitz and K. H. Cook and Ernesto Corrales and Morgan Desort and Stefan W. Dieters and Dijana Dominis and Jadzia Donatowicz and M. Hoffman and Stephen R. Kane and Jean Baptiste Marquette and R. M. Martin and Petrus J. Meintjes and Karen Pollard and Kailash C. Sahu and Christian Vinter and Joachim Wambsganss and Kristian Woller and Keith D. Horne and Iain A. Steele and D. M. Bramich and Martin J. Burgdorf and Colin Snodgrass and Michael F. Bode and Andrzej Udalski and Michał K. Szymański and Marcin Kubiak and T. Wickowski and Grzegorz Pietrzyński and Igor Soszyński and Olaf Szewczyk and Łukasz Wyrzykowski and Bohdan Paczyński and Fumio Abe and Ian A. Bond and Tui R Britton and Alan C. Gilmore and John B. Hearnshaw and Yoshitaka Itow and Koki Kamiya and Pam M. Kilmartin and Aarno Korpela and Kimiaki Masuda and Yoshimi Matsubara and Masanori Motomura and Yasushi Muraki and S. Nakamura and Chiho Okada and Kouji Ohnishi and Nicholas J. Rattenbury and T. Sako and S. Sato and M. Sasaki and Tomohiko Sekiguchi and Denis J. Sullivan and Paul J. Tristram and Ph. Yock and Takehiro Yoshioka},
In the favoured core-accretion model of formation of planetary systems, solid planetesimals accumulate to build up planetary cores, which then accrete nebular gas if they are sufficiently massive. Around M-dwarf stars (the most common stars in our Galaxy), this model favours the formation of Earth-mass (M⊕) to Neptune-mass planets with orbital radii of 1 to 10 astronomical units (au), which is consistent with the small number of gas giant planets known to orbit M-dwarf host stars. More than 170… 

The Search for Other Earths: Limits on the Giant Planet Orbits That Allow Habitable Terrestrial Planets to Form

Gas giant planets are far easier than terrestrial planets to detect around other stars, and they are thought to form much more quickly than terrestrial planets. Thus, in systems with giant planets,

Extrasolar planets: Light through a gravitational lens

A planet with a mass lower than that of Neptune has been detected as its gravity bent the light from a remote star, which suggests that cool, sub-Neptune mass planets are more common than gas giants, as predicted by the favoured core accretion theory of planet formation.

Planet formation around M-dwarfs: the moving snow line and super-Earths

Abstract Planets result from a series of processes within a circumstellar disk. Evidence comes from the near planar orbits in the Solar System and other planetary systems, observations of newly

A reappraisal of the habitability of planets around M dwarf stars.

It is concluded that M dwarf stars may indeed be viable hosts for planets on which the origin and evolution of life can occur and it makes sense to include M dwarfs in programs that seek to find habitable worlds and evidence of life.

Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn Analog with Gravitational Microlensing

Two planets with masses that could not have been detected with other techniques are identified; their discovery from only six confirmed microlensing planet detections suggests that solar system analogs may be common.

Transiting extrasolar planetary candidates in the Galactic bulge

16 candidates with orbital periods between 0.4 and 4.2 days are discovered, constituting a new class of ultra-short-period planets, which occur only around stars of less than 0.88 M[circdot], indicating that those orbiting very close to more-luminous stars might be evaporatively destroyed or that jovian planets aroundStars of lower mass might migrate to smaller radii.

One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations

It is concluded that stars are orbited by planets as a rule, rather than the exception, and that of stars host Jupiter-mass planets 0.5–10 au (Sun–Earth distance) from their stars.

Planet Formation around Stars of Various Masses: Hot Super-Earths

We consider trends resulting from two formation mechanisms for short-period super-Earths: planet-planet scattering and migration. We model scenarios where these planets originate near the snow line

Rapid Formation of Super-Earths around M Dwarf Stars

While the recent microlensing discoveries of super-Earths orbiting two M dwarf stars have been taken as support for the core accretion mechanism of giant planet formation, we show here that these

Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Gravitational Microlensing

Gravitational microlensing provides a unique window on the properties and prevalence of extrasolar planetary systems because of its ability to find low-mass planets at separations of a few AU. The



The Core Accretion Model Predicts Few Jovian-Mass Planets Orbiting Red Dwarfs

The favored theoretical explanation for giant planet formation—in both our solar system and others—is the core accretion model (although it still has some serious difficulties). In this scenario,

Detecting Earth-Mass Planets with Gravitational Microlensing

We show that Earth-mass planets orbiting stars in the Galactic disk and bulge can be detected by monitoring microlensed stars in the Galactic bulge. The star and its planet act as a binary lens which

Toward a Deterministic Model of Planetary Formation. II. The Formation and Retention of Gas Giant Planets around Stars with a Range of Metallicities

The apparent dependence of detection frequency of extrasolar planets on the metallicity of their host stars is investigated with Monte Carlo simulations using a deterministic core-accretion planet

Simulation of a Space-based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extrasolar Planets

We show that a space-based gravitational microlensing survey for terrestrial extrasolar planets is feasible in the near future and could provide a nearly complete picture of the properties of

Discovering Galactic planets by gravitational microlensing: magnification patterns and light curves

The current searches for microlensing events towards the galactic bulge can be used to detect planets around the lensing stars. Their effect is a short-term modulation on the smooth lightcurve

A ~7.5 M⊕ Planet Orbiting the Nearby Star, GJ 876

High-precision, high-cadence radial velocity monitoring over the past 8 yr at the W. M. Keck Observatory reveals evidence for a third planet orbiting the nearby (4.69 pc) dM4 star GJ 876. The

Search for Low-Mass Exoplanets by Gravitational Microlensing at High Magnification

Observations of the gravitational microlensing event MOA 2003- BLG-32/OGLE 2003-BLG-219 are presented, for which the peak magnification was over 500, the highest yet reported, which enabled a sensitive search for planets orbiting the lens star.

Formation of the Terrestrial Planets

Two growth mechanisms are identified for the development of the terrestrial planets: (1) gravitational instability leading to a collapse, and (2) gravitational accumulation caused by two-body

The Use of High-Magnification Microlensing Events in Discovering Extrasolar Planets

Hundreds of gravitational microlensing events have now been detected toward the Galactic bulge, with many more to come. The detection of fine structure in these events has been theorized as an

Discovering Planetary Systems through Gravitational Microlenses

Planetary systems of Galactic disk stars can be detected as microlenses of stars in the Galactic bulge. Planets in a solar-like system positioned half-way to the Galactic center should leave a