Discovery of Enhanced Germanium Abundances in Planetary Nebulae with FUSE

  title={Discovery of Enhanced Germanium Abundances in Planetary Nebulae with FUSE},
  author={N. Sterling and H. Dinerstein and C. Bowers},
  journal={arXiv: Astrophysics},
We report the discovery of Ge III $\lambda$1088.46 in the planetary nebulae (PNe) SwSt 1, BD+30$^{\rm o}$3639, NGC 3132, and IC 4593, observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. This is the first astronomical detection of this line and the first measurement of Ge (Z = 32) in PNe. We estimate Ge abundances using S and Fe as reference elements, for a range of assumptions about gas-phase depletions. The results indicate that Ge, which is synthesized in the initial steps of the s… Expand
The Production of Germanium in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars
Observations of planetary nebulae by Sterling, Dinerstein and Bowers have revealed enhancements in the element Germanium (Ge) by factors of 3 to 10 compared to solar. Germanium can be produced byExpand


The origin of the elements.
The development of the modern understanding of the origin of the chemical elements is reviewed. Nucleosynthesis in stars and in the early Universe is treated in this 1978 Nobel lecture. Reference isExpand