# Discontinuous parsing with continuous trees

@inproceedings{Maier2016DiscontinuousPW, title={Discontinuous parsing with continuous trees}, author={Wolfgang Maier and Timm Lichte}, year={2016} }

We introduce a new method for incremental shift-reduce parsing of discontinuous constituency trees, based on the fact that discontinuous trees can be transformed into continuous trees by changing the order of the terminal nodes. It allows for a clean formulation of different oracles, leads to faster parsers and provides better results. Our best system achieves an F1 of 80.02 on TIGER.

## 22 Citations

Reducing Discontinuous to Continuous Parsing with Pointer Network Reordering

- Computer ScienceEMNLP
- 2021

A Pointer Network capable of accurately generating the continuous token arrangement for a given input sentence and define a bijective function to recover the original order is developed.

Incremental Discontinuous Phrase Structure Parsing with the GAP Transition

- Computer ScienceEACL
- 2017

A novel transition system for discontinuous lexicalized constituent parsing called SR-GAP is introduced, an extension of the shift-reduce algorithm with an additional gap transition that outperforms the previous best transition-based discontinuous parser by a large margin.

Discontinuous Constituent Parsing as Sequence Labeling

- Computer ScienceEMNLP
- 2020

This paper reduces discontinuous parsing to sequence labeling and proposes to encode tree discontinuities as nearly ordered permutations of the input sequence as well as studies whether such discontinuous representations are learnable.

Discontinuous Constituency Parsing with a Stack-Free Transition System and a Dynamic Oracle

- Computer ScienceNAACL
- 2019

A novel transition system for discontinuous constituency parsing uses a set of parsing items, with constant-time random access, which makes it possible to construct any discontinuous constituencies tree in exactly 4n–2 transitions for a sentence of length n.

Discontinuous Constituency Parsing with a Stack-Free Transition System and a Dynamic Oracle

- Computer Science
- 2019

A novel transition system for discontinuous constituency parsing uses a set of parsing items, with constant-time random access, which makes it possible to construct any discontinuous constituencies tree in exactly 4n − 2 transitions for a sentence of length n, whereas existing systems need a quadratic number of transitions to derive some structures.

A Unifying Theory of Transition-based and Sequence Labeling Parsing

- Computer Science, BiologyCOLING
- 2020

A mapping from transition-based parsing algorithms that read sentences from left to right to sequence labeling encodings of syntactic trees is defined, and applying it to dependency parsing, sequence labeling versions of four algorithms are implemented.

Advances in Using Grammars with Latent Annotations for Discontinuous Parsing

- Computer ScienceIWPT
- 2020

It is found that the grammars presented are more accurate than previous approaches based on discontinuous grammar formalisms and early instances of the discriminative models but inferior to recent discriminatives parsers.

Generic refinement of expressive grammar formalisms with an application to discontinuous constituent parsing

- Computer ScienceCOLING
- 2018

We formulate a generalization of Petrov et al. (2006)’s split/merge algorithm for interpreted regular tree grammars (Koller and Kuhlmann, 2011), which capture a large class of grammar formalisms. We…

Neural Discontinuous Constituency Parsing

- Computer ScienceEMNLP
- 2017

This paper proposes a solution to the problem of where the relevant information for parsing decisions could be located in any part of the stack or the buffer by replacing the structured perceptron model with a recursive neural model that computes a global representation of the configuration.

Discontinuous Constituent Parsing with Pointer Networks

- Computer ScienceAAAI
- 2020

This work proposes a novel neural network architecture that, by means of Pointer Networks, is able to generate the most accurate discontinuous constituent representations to date, even without the need of Part-of-Speech tagging information.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES

Discontinuous Incremental Shift-reduce Parsing

- Computer ScienceACL
- 2015

We present an extension to incremental shift-reduce parsing that handles discontinuous constituents, using a linear classifier and beam search. We achieve very high parsing speeds (up to 640…

An Improved Oracle for Dependency Parsing with Online Reordering

- Computer ScienceIWPT
- 2009

An improved training strategy for dependency parsers that use online reordering to handle non-projective trees improves both efficiency and accuracy by reducing the number of swap operations performed on non- projective trees by up to 80%.

Discontinuous Parsing with an Efficient and Accurate DOP Model

- Computer ScienceIWPT
- 2013

We present a discontinuous variant of tree-substitution grammar (tsg) based on Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems. We use this formalism to instantiate a Data-Oriented Parsing model applied to…

Non-Projective Dependency Parsing in Expected Linear Time

- Computer ScienceACL
- 2009

A novel transition system for dependency parsing, which constructs arcs only between adjacent words but can parse arbitrary non-projective trees by swapping the order of words in the input, shows state-of-the-art accuracy.

Hybrid Grammars for Discontinuous Parsing

- Computer ScienceCOLING
- 2014

This work formalizes and generalizes some existing mechanisms for dealing with discontinuous phrase structures and non-projective dependency structures and introduces the concept of hybrid grammars, which are extensions of synchronous grammARS, obtained by coupling of lexical elements.

Optimal Shift-Reduce Constituent Parsing with Structured Perceptron

- Computer ScienceACL
- 2015

A constituent shift-reduce parser with a structured perceptron that finds the optimal parse in a practical runtime and achieves 91.1 F1 on a standard English experiment, a level which cannot be reached by other beam-based systems even with large beam sizes.

Efficient parsing with Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems

- Computer ScienceEACL
- 2012

This work shows that parsing long sentences with such an optimally binarized grammar remains infeasible, and introduces a technique which removes this length restriction, while maintaining a respectable accuracy.

Parsing Discontinuous Phrase Structure with Grammatical Functions

- Computer ScienceGoTAL
- 2008

This paper presents a novel technique for parsing discontinuous phrase structure representations, labeled with both phrase labels and grammatical functions, and performs an evaluation on the German TIGER treebank and the Swedish Talbanken05 treebank.

Parsing as Reduction

- Computer ScienceACL
- 2015

This work reduces phrase-representation parsing to dependency parsing, and shows that any off-the-shelf, trainable dependency parser can be used to produce constituents, and can perform discontinuous parsing in a very natural manner.

Shift-Reduce Constituency Parsing with Dynamic Programming and POS Tag Lattice

- Computer ScienceNAACL
- 2015

This work presents the first dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for shift-reduce constituency parsing, which extends the DP idea of Huang and Sagae (2010) to context-free grammars and extends the parser to take a tag lattice instead of a fixed tag sequence.