Dirigent proteins: molecular characteristics and potential biotechnological applications

@article{Pickel2013DirigentPM,
  title={Dirigent proteins: molecular characteristics and potential biotechnological applications},
  author={Benjamin Pickel and Andreas Schaller},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
  year={2013},
  volume={97},
  pages={8427-8438}
}
Dirigent proteins (DIRs) are thought to play important roles in plant secondary metabolism. They lack catalytic activity but direct the outcome of bimolecular coupling reactions toward regio- and stereospecific product formation. Functionally described DIRs confer specificity to the oxidative coupling of coniferyl alcohol resulting in the preferred production of either (+)- or (−)-pinoresinol, which are the first intermediates in the enantiocomplementary pathways for lignan biosynthesis. DIRs… Expand
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Crystal structure analysis reveals the mode of substrate radical binding and indicates a previously unrecognized catalytic function for dirigent proteins during enantioselective pinoresinol formation and extensive mutational analysis supports a previously unknown function for DIRs in catalyzing the cyclization of the bis-quinone methide reaction intermediate to yield (+)- or (−)-pinoresinols. Expand
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Optimized expression of the dirigent protein AtDIR6 in Pichia pastoris and impact of glycosylation on protein structure and function
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the glycan structures of AtDIR6 are essential for structure, solubility, and function of the protein as deglycosylation induced conformational changes leading to the complete loss in dirigent activity and subsequent protein aggregation. Expand
Regiochemical control of monolignol radical coupling: a new paradigm for lignin and lignan biosynthesis.
TLDR
The first understanding of regiochemical and stereochemical control of monolignol coupling in lignan biosynthesis has been established via the participation of a new class of dirigent proteins. Expand
Opposite Stereoselectivities of Dirigent Proteins in Arabidopsis and Schizandra Species*
TLDR
This is the first report of dirigent-mediated phenoxy radical coupling control leading to opposite stereoselectivities and identification of protein regions involved, and novel insights into stereoselectedive control over phenoxyradical coupling were obtained. Expand
Evolution of the Chalcone Isomerase Fold from Fatty Acid-Binding to Stereospecific Enzyme
Specialized metabolic enzymes biosynthesize chemicals of ecological importance, often sharing a pedigree with primary metabolic enzymes. However, the lineage of the enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI)Expand
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TLDR
The crystal structure of AOC2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is discussed with respect to putative binding sites of the instable substrate, 12,13-epoxy-9(Z),11,15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid (12, 13-EOT), as well as possible intermolecular rearrangements during the cyclization reaction. Expand
A model of dirigent proteins derived from structural and functional similarities with allene oxide cyclase and lipocalins
TLDR
It is shown here that the dirigent protein AtDIR6 from Arabidopsis’thaliana is a homodimeric all‐beta protein in the superfamily of calycins, suggesting that dirigent proteins evolved from hydrophobic ligand‐binding proteins. Expand
Kinetic study of coniferyl alcohol radical binding to the (+)-pinoresinol forming dirigent protein.
TLDR
A mechanism of directed radical-radical coupling, where two coniferyl alcohol radical substrates are bound per protein dimer is proposed, which strongly suggest that CA(*, rather than CA, is the substrate for DP, in agreement with earlier predictions. Expand
(+)-Pinoresinol/(+)-Lariciresinol Reductase from Forsythia intermedia
Lignans are a widely distributed class of natural products, whose functions and distribution suggest that they are one of the earliest forms of defense to have evolved in vascular plants; some, suchExpand
Secondary and quaternary structures of the (+)-pinoresinol-forming dirigent protein.
TLDR
Analytical ultracentrifugation, sedimentation velocity, and sedimentation equilibrium analyses of the native dirigent protein in open solution confirmed further its dimeric nature as well as a propensity to aggregate, with the latter being dependent upon both temperature and solution ionic strength. Expand
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TLDR
The results showed that stilbene oligomers with an unusual phenanthrene moiety exhibited much stronger antioxidant activities, which was hypothesized to play a role in the antioxidative defense system of the plant. Expand
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