Directional asymmetry of the frog monocular optokinetic nystagmus: Cholinergic modulation

  title={Directional asymmetry of the frog monocular optokinetic nystagmus: Cholinergic modulation},
  author={B. Jardon and Y. H. Yucel and N. Bonaventure},
  journal={Vision Research},
The frog monocular optokinetic gaze nystagmus (OKN) was studied by coil recordings after intravitreal administration of cholinergic drugs into the closed eye. Before injection, the frog displayed OKN for stimulations in the temporo-nasal (T-N) direction only. The injection of muscarinic agonists, as well as that of nicotinic antagonists, provoked the appearance of a naso-temporal (N-T) component, the slow phase velocity gain then being strongly and significantly increased. The abolition of the… 
Are retinal or mesencephalic dopaminergic systems involved in monocular optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry in frog?
Administration of Piribedil, a strong D2 dopamine agonist, provokes the appearance of a N-T component, suppressing the monocular H-OKN asymmetry, whether the drug is injected by intravitreal or intrapretectal route.
Effects of Unilateral Visual Deprivation in Adult Frog on Monocular Okn Directional Asymmetry
The results suggest that this phenomenon of visual plasticity can be due to reduction in pretectal GABAergic inhibition, and to concomitant activation of both cholinergic muscarinic and NMDA receptors.
The pretectal cholinergic system is involved through two opposite ways in frog monocular OKN asymmetry
The data suggest that acetylcholine (ACh), at the level of the pretectum, acts in opposite ways through muscarinic and nicotinic binding sites; monocular OKN asymmetry could result, at least partially, from a facilitatingNicotinic effect and an inhibitoryMuscarinic effect.
Plasticity of the frog monocular OKN: involvement of pretectal GABAergic and cholinergic systems
Microinjection of either gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-C) Pyridin-3-ol or muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine into the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, the pretectal mesencephalic structure involved in OKN, transiently abolished the presence of N-T component.
N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists suppress the development of frog symmetric monocular optokynetic nystagmus observed after unilateral visual deprivation.
Analysis of search coil recordings showed that the slow phase velocity gain of both T-N and N-T components became similar, and NMDA receptors appear to be involved in the control of the plasticity process which allows monocular OKN of adult lower vertebrates to become symmetrical.
Different effects of dopamine and Piribedil (a dopamine D2 agonist) on frog monocular optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry
The results suggest that Piribedil binds with muscarinic receptors, and is associated with directional asymmetry in frogs monocular OKN.
Responses to moving visual stimuli in pretectal neurons of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula).
The recorded direction-selective neurons in the Cgl are plausible detectors for retinal slip created by body rotations in all directions, which argues against a direct transformation from a retinal to a vestibular reference frame.
Die Fledermaus: Regarding Optokinetic Contrast Sensitivity and Light-Adaptation, Chicks Are Mice with Wings
The chick optokinetic response is an attractive model for noninvasive, behavioral studies of adaptation in retinal circuitry in health and disease because it adapts by using a “day/night” or “cone/rod” switch in tuning preference during changes in lighting conditions.
Mechanisms of Adaptation to Mean Light Intensity in the Chick Retina
Through adaptation, animals can function visually under an enormous range of light intensities. Adaptation to changes in light intensity takes place early, in the retina. One role of adaptation is to


Directional asymmetry of the horizontal monocular head and eye optokinetic nystagmus: Effects of picrotoxin
Picrotoxin abolished the directional asymmetry of head and eye OKN, indicating the involvement of GABAergic mechanisms in the inhibition of the N-T component of the monocular eye and head OKN.
On cholinergic mechanisms in the optokinetic nystagmus of the frog: Antagonistic effects of muscarinic and nicotinic systems
The data show that ACh mechanisms are involved in the control of the frog OKN, especially in directional asymmetry, nicotinic and muscarinic systems acting in an antagonistic way.
On GABAergic mechanisms in the optokinetic nystagmus of the frog: effects of bicuculline, allylglycine and SR 95103, a new GABA antagonist.
Results confirmed that GABA mechanisms are involved in the control of the frog OKN and SR 95103 acted in this model as a potent selective GABA antagonist, as has been demonstrated in another system.
Neural correlates of optokinetic nystagmus in the mesencephalon of Rana pipiens: a functional analysis.
The studies indicate that horizontal OKN may be mediated by a number of structures within the anuran mesencephalon, including BOR, peri-nBOR, and the large-celled pretectal nucleus and dorsal tegmental gray.
Involvement of ON and OFF retinal channels in the eye and head horizontal optokinetic nystagmus of the frog.
It is suggested that the retinal ON information channel, but not the OFF channel, is involved in the generation of the slow phase of the OKN of the frog, at least at low drum velocities.
The unidirectionality of the labyrinthine reflex in relation to the unidirectionality of the optokinetic reflex.
  • T. Fukuda
  • Physics, Medicine
    Acta oto-laryngologica
  • 1959
Five leghorns, whose eyes were covered unilaterally, were rotated with an angular acceleration of l/sec2 for a minute and the unidirectional excitation of the labyrinth and perrotatory head nystagmus occurs.
Re-investigation of the role of the accessory optic system and pretectum in the horizontal optokinetic head nystagmus of the frog. Lesion experiments.
It is concluded that the pretectal region is the most important structure at the input side in the initiation of this visuomotor response and the basal optic nucleus together with the neighbouring tegmental area may also play some role in the regulation of the OKN.
Physiological effects of muscarinic vs nicotinic ACh antagonists upon ganglion cell activity in the frog retina
Data obtained are analogous to those obtained after administration of GABA antagonists and show that through nicotinic receptors, ACh seems to be involved in the spatial organization of the On-Off ganglion cell.
Optomotor Responses to Monocular Stimulation: Relation to Visual System Organization
Results of tests on 4 mammalian, 19 reptilian, and 17 avian species confirmed the prediction that lack of optomotor response to monocular optokinetic stimulation in one of the two horizontal
Effects of picrotoxin and strychnine on rabbit retinal ganglion cells: lateral interactions for cells with more complex receptive fields.
The effect of these drugs for every type of ganglion cell with complex receptive field properties was to make the receptive field more simple, and the orientation selective cells, large field cells, 'on' direction selective cells and uniformity detectors seem to be centre surround cells with special properties that are abolished by these drugs.