Direct versus indirect tests of memory for source: judgments of modality.

@article{Kelley1989DirectVI,
  title={Direct versus indirect tests of memory for source: judgments of modality.},
  author={Clarence M. Kelley and Larry L. Jacoby and Ann Hollingshead},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition},
  year={1989},
  volume={15 6},
  pages={
          1101-8
        }
}
We studied the relation between performance on direct versus indirect tests of memory for modality. Subjects read or heard words in a mixed list and then were tested by visual perceptual identification (the indirect test) and direct report of items as read, heard, or new. There was a dependent relation between perceptual identification performance and modality judgments, in accord with the hypothesis that subjects base their judgments of modality on relative perceptual fluency. In Experiment 2… 

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