Direct probe of topological order for cold atoms

@article{Deng2014DirectPO,
  title={Direct probe of topological order for cold atoms},
  author={Dong-Ling Deng and Sheng-Tao Wang and Luming Duan},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2014},
  volume={90},
  pages={041601}
}
Cold-atom experiments in optical lattices offer a versatile platform to realize various topological quantum phases. A key challenge in those experiments is to unambiguously probe the topological order. We propose a method to directly measure the characteristic topological invariants (order) based on the time-of-flight imaging of cold atoms. The method is generally applicable to detection of topological band insulators in one, two, or three dimensions characterized by integer topological… 

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