# Direct measurement of the size and shape of the present-day stellar wind of $\eta$ Carinae

@article{Boekel2003DirectMO,
title={Direct measurement of the size and shape of the present-day stellar wind of \$\eta\$ Carinae},
author={Roy van Boekel and Pierre Kervella and Markus Schoeller and Tom M. Herbst and Wolfgang Brandner and L. B. F. M. Waters and D. John Hillier and Francesco Paresce and Rainer Lenzen and Anne-Marie Lagrange},
journal={Astronomy and Astrophysics},
year={2003},
volume={410}
}
We present new high angular resolution observations at near-IR wavelengths of the core of the Luminous Blue Variable Carinae, using NAOS-CONICA at the VLT and VINCI at the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). The latter observations provide spatial information on a scale of 5 milli-arcsec or 11 AU at the distance of Carinae. The present-day stellar wind of Carinae is resolved on a scale of several stellar radii. Assuming spherical symmetry, we find a mass loss rate of 1:610 3 M/yr and a wind clumping… Expand
92 Citations

#### Figures from this paper

Eta Car through the Eyes of Interferometers
The core of the nebula surrounding Eta Carinae has recently been observed with VLT/NACO, VLTI/VINCI, VLTI/MIDI and VLTI/AMBER in order to spatially and spectrally constrain the warm dusty environmentExpand
The polar wind of the fast rotating Be star Achernar. VINCI/VLTI interferometric observations of an
• Physics
• 2006
Be stars show evidence of mass loss and circumstellar envelopes (CSE), from UV resonance lines, near-IR excesses and the presence of episodic hydrogen emission lines. The geometry of these envelopesExpand
Resolving the Hα-emitting Region in the Wind of η Carinae
• Physics
• 2017
The massive evolved star η Carinae is the most luminous star in the Milky Way and has the highest steady wind mass-loss rate of any known star. Radiative transfer models of the spectrum by Hillier etExpand
On the influence of the companion star in Eta Carinae: 2D radiative transfer modeling of the ultraviolet and optical spectra
We present 2D radiative transfer modeling of the Eta Carinae binary system accounting for the presence of a wind-wind collision (WWC) cavity carved in the optically-thick wind of the primary star. ByExpand
IS ETA CARINAE A FAST ROTATOR, AND HOW MUCH DOES THE COMPANION INFLUENCE THE INNER WIND STRUCTURE?*
• Physics
• 2010
We analyze interferometric measurements of the luminous blue variable Eta Carinae with the goal of constraining the rotational velocity of the primary star and probing the influence of the companion.Expand
The sub-arcsecond dusty environment of Eta Carinae
The core of the nebula surrounding Eta Carinae has been observed with the VLT Adaptive Optics system NACO and with the interferometer VLTI/MIDI to constrain spatially and spectrally the warm dustyExpand
The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars: mass loss and rotation of early-type stars in the SMC
We have studied the optical spectra of a sample of 31 O- and early B-type stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 21 of which are associated with the young massive cluster NGC 346. Stellar parametersExpand
Interferometric observations of η Carinae with VINCI/VLTI
Context. The bright starCarinae is the most massive and luminous star in our region of the Milky Way. Though it has been extensively studied using many different techniques, its physical nature andExpand
The empirical metallicity dependence of the mass-loss rate of O- and early B-type stars
We present a comprehensive study of the observational dependence of the mass-loss rate in stationary stellar winds of hot massive stars on the metal content of their atmospheres. The metal content ofExpand
Maximum mass-loss rates of line-driven winds of massive stars: The effect of rotation and an application to eta Carinae
• Physics
• 2004
We investigate the effect of rotation on the maximum mass-loss rate due to an optically-thin radiatively-driven wind according to a formalism which takes into account the possible presence of anyExpand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
Latitude-dependent Effects in the Stellar Wind of η Carinae
• Physics
• 2003
The Homunculus reflection nebula around η Carinae provides a rare opportunity to observe the spectrum of a star from more than one direction. In the case of η Car, the nebula's geometry is known wellExpand
The shape of eta Carinae and LBV nebulae
• Physics
• 2001
Stellar winds emitted by rotating massive stars may show two main components: rstly bipolar lobes with low density and fast wind, produced by the higher Te and gravity at the poles (\ge{eect");Expand
Discovery of a massive equatorial torus in the η Carinae stellar system
The enigmatic object η Carinae is believed to represent an important, but short-lived, unstable phase in the life of the most massive stars, occurring shortly before they explode as supernovae orExpand
Mass and Kinetic Energy of the Homunculus Nebula around η Carinae
We examine thermal infrared images of η Car at wavelengths from 4.8 to 25 μm obtained with the MIRAC3 camera system at the Magellan Observatory, and we conclude that η Car's circumstellar HomunculusExpand
Radiatively Driven Winds and the Shaping of Bipolar Luminous Blue Variable Nebulae
• Physics
• 2002
Nebulae around luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are often characterized by a bipolar, prolate form. In the standard interpretation of the generalized interacting stellar winds model, this bipolarExpand
Recent Changes in the Near-Infrared Structure of η Carinae*
• Physics
• 2000
Near-infrared imaging at two phases in the 5 yr spectroscopic cycle of η Carinae reveals changes in the spatial structure of the inner core that may be related to recently reported near-infraredExpand
Giant Outbursts of Luminous Blue Variables and the Formation of the Homunculus Nebula around η Carinae
• Physics
• 1999
The observed giant outbursts of luminous blue variables (LBVs) may occur when these massive stars approach their Eddington limits. When this happens, they must reach a point at which the centrifugalExpand
On the Nature of the Central Source in η Carinae
• Physics
• 2001
Long-slit spectroscopic observations of η Carinae and its Homunculus have recently been obtained using STIS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have extracted the spectrum of the central sourceExpand
The Shape and Orientation of the Homunculus Nebula
• Physics
• 2000
Doppler velocities give information about the three-dimensional shape and orientation of the bipolar ejecta of η Car. We report slit spectroscopy obtained using the Space Telescope ImagingExpand
Inhibition of Wind Compressed Disk Formation by Nonradial Line-Forces
• Physics
• 1996
We investigate the effects of nonradial line forces on the formation of a wind-compressed disk (WCD) around a rapidly rotating B star. Such nonradial forces can arise both from asymmetries in theExpand