Direct measurement of the adhesive strength of biofilms in pipes by micromanipulation

  title={Direct measurement of the adhesive strength of biofilms in pipes by micromanipulation},
  author={M. J. Chen and Zhibing Zhang and T. Reg. Bott},
  journal={Biotechnology Techniques},
A novel micromanipulation technique has been developed to measure directly the adhesive strength of biofilms formed in pipe flows. A T-shaped probe was specially designed to pull Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms away from the inner surface of a pipe to which they were attached. The adhesive strength between biofilms and the substratum was defined as the work required to remove the biofilms per unit area from the substratum. Results showed that the adhesive strength increased with the fluid… 
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