Direct measurement of Vorticella contraction force by micropipette deflection.

  title={Direct measurement of Vorticella contraction force by micropipette deflection.},
  author={Danielle Cook France and Jonathan Tejada and Paul Matsudaira},
  journal={FEBS letters},
  volume={591 4},
The ciliated protozoan Vorticella convallaria is noted for its exceptionally fast adenosine triphosphate-independent cellular contraction, but direct measurements of contractile force have proven difficult given the length scale, speed, and forces involved. We used high-speed video microscopy to image live Vorticella stalled in midcontraction by deflection of an attached micropipette. Stall forces correlate with both distance contracted and the resting stalk length. Estimated isometric forces… CONTINUE READING
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