Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications

  title={Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications},
  author={Markus Deubel and Georg von Freymann and Martin Wegener and Suresh Pereira and Kurt Busch and Costas M. Soukoulis},
  journal={Nature Materials},
The past decade has witnessed intensive research efforts related to the design and fabrication of photonic crystals1,2. These periodically structured dielectric materials can represent the optical analogue of semiconductor crystals, and provide a novel platform for the realization of integrated photonics. Despite intensive efforts, inexpensive fabrication techniques for large-scale three-dimensional photonic crystals of high enough quality, with photonic bandgaps at near-infrared frequencies… 
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This work describes a technique—three-dimensional holographic lithography—that is well suited to the production of three-dimensional structures with sub-micrometre periodicity, and has made microperiodic polymeric structures, and used these as templates to create complementary structures with higher refractive-index contrast.
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Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization.
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  • K. Busch, Sajeev John
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