Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride

@article{Chen2000DirectER,
  title={Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride},
  author={George Zheng Chen and Derek John Fray and Thomas William Farthing},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={407},
  pages={361-364}
}
Many reactive metals are difficult to prepare in pure form without complicated and expensive procedures. Although titanium has many desirable properties (it is light, strong and corrosion-resistant), its use has been restricted because of its high processing cost. In the current pyrometallurgical process—the Kroll process—the titanium minerals rutile and ilmenite are carbo-chlorinated to remove oxygen, iron and other impurities, producing a TiCl4 vapour. This is then reduced to titanium metal… 

REDUCTION OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND OTHER METAL OXIDES BY ELECTRO-DEOXIDATION imilllll

  • Deré
  • Materials Science
  • 2004
Titanium dioxide and other reactive metal compounds are reduced by more reactive metals to form pure metals. These are expensive and time consuming processes which makes these metals very expensive.

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Abstract Titanium ores are very plentiful in the earth crust but the demand for titanium metal is restricted by its high cost in spite of its excellent mechanical properties, corrosion and oxidation

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Titanium metal production by the Kroll process requires a high-grade ore material as a feedstock for chlorination, such as natural or synthetic rutile. Electrochemical methods for making titanium

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Fundamental Aspects of Calciothermic Process to Produce Titanium

  • K. Ono
  • Materials Science, Chemistry
  • 2004
Recently, direct reduction of titanium oxide by calcium in molten salt is being given attention to produce titanium, 1) because this route would improve smelting performance, which would allow for

Electrochemical Behaviour of Dissolved Titanium Oxides during Aluminium Deposition from Molten Fluoride Electrolytes

A small but signi cant amount of dissolved titanium is always present in the molten cryolite based electrolyte used during electrowinning of aluminium. The fact that titanium can appear in several
...

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