Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride

@article{Chen2000DirectER,
  title={Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride},
  author={George Zheng Chen and Derek John Fray and Thomas William Farthing},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={407},
  pages={361-364}
}
Many reactive metals are difficult to prepare in pure form without complicated and expensive procedures. Although titanium has many desirable properties (it is light, strong and corrosion-resistant), its use has been restricted because of its high processing cost. In the current pyrometallurgical process—the Kroll process—the titanium minerals rutile and ilmenite are carbo-chlorinated to remove oxygen, iron and other impurities, producing a TiCl4 vapour. This is then reduced to titanium metal… Expand
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