Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride

  title={Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride},
  author={George Zheng Chen and Derek John Fray and Thomas William Farthing},
Many reactive metals are difficult to prepare in pure form without complicated and expensive procedures. Although titanium has many desirable properties (it is light, strong and corrosion-resistant), its use has been restricted because of its high processing cost. In the current pyrometallurgical process—the Kroll process—the titanium minerals rutile and ilmenite are carbo-chlorinated to remove oxygen, iron and other impurities, producing a TiCl4 vapour. This is then reduced to titanium metal… 


  • Deré
  • Materials Science
  • 2004
Titanium dioxide and other reactive metal compounds are reduced by more reactive metals to form pure metals. These are expensive and time consuming processes which makes these metals very expensive.

Novel methods for the production of titanium

Abstract Titanium ores are very plentiful in the earth crust but the demand for titanium metal is restricted by its high cost in spite of its excellent mechanical properties, corrosion and oxidation

An Overview of Production of Titanium and an Attempt to Titanium Production with Ferro-Titanium

Many reactive metals are difficult to prepare in pure form without complicated and expensive procedures. Titanium, in spite of its abundance and numerous favorable properties is not in use to the

Comparison of Methods for Electrochemical Iron Removal from Titanium Ores

Titanium metal production by the Kroll process requires a high-grade ore material as a feedstock for chlorination, such as natural or synthetic rutile. Electrochemical methods for making titanium

Fate of titanium in alkaline electro-reduction of sintered titanomagnetite

Direct electrochemical reduction of iron ore in concentrated NaOH electrolyte has been proposed as a potential route to substantially reducing the global steel industry’s CO2 emissions. Here, we

Fundamental Aspects of Calciothermic Process to Produce Titanium

  • K. Ono
  • Materials Science, Chemistry
  • 2004
Recently, direct reduction of titanium oxide by calcium in molten salt is being given attention to produce titanium, 1) because this route would improve smelting performance, which would allow for

Electrochemical Behaviour of Dissolved Titanium Oxides during Aluminium Deposition from Molten Fluoride Electrolytes

A small but signi cant amount of dissolved titanium is always present in the molten cryolite based electrolyte used during electrowinning of aluminium. The fact that titanium can appear in several



Ti and TiAl powders by the flash reduction of chloride vapors

The current industrial practice for producing titanium metal, the Kroll process, includes a batch process for reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium in a steel pot.1,2 It has not changed much

Deoxidation of titanium aluminide by Ca-Al alloy under controlled aluminum activity

Removal of oxygen in titanium aluminide (TiAl) by chemically active calcium-aluminum (Ca-AI) alloy was carried out around 1373 K with the purpose of obtaining extra-low-oxygen TiAl. The deoxidation

Thermodynamic properties of oxygen in yttrium-oxygen solid solutions

The oxygen potential in yttrium-oxygen (Y-O) solid solutions was measured by equilibration with titanium-oxygen (Ti-O) solid solutions. Yttrium and titanium samples were immersed in calcium-saturated

The high-quality precision casting of titanium alloys

A technique for the high-quality precision casting of titanium alloys has been developed that consists of the instantaneous dissociation of oxide at the metal-mold interface, followed by the rapid

Handbook of extractive metallurgy

The Metal Industry: The Economic Classification of Metals Metal Production Recycling of Metals By-Product Metals Ferrous Metals: Iron Steel Ferroalloys Primary Metals: Copper Lead Zinc Tin Nickel

Magnetoresistance and Conductivity in the Binary System Titanium-Oxygen. I. Titanium Oxides with Metallic Conductivity

In the binary system titanium–oxygen the electrical and thermal conductivity and the magnetoresistance is measured at low temperature and at magnetic inductions up to 15 T. In part I the results for

Producing lower-cost titanium for automotive applications

Although titanium has attractive properties that can improve the performance and economy of automobiles, at its current cost, it cannot compete with steel in most applications for which it is suited.

Oxide complexes in alkali-alkaline-earth chloride melts

The solubilities of alkaline-earth oxides in alkali-alkaline-earth chloride, NaCl−MCl 2 , melts are presented. The oxide solubility increases markedly with the MCl 2 concentration and with increasing