Direct cardiac effects of intracoronary bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in the sheep.

@article{Chang2001DirectCE,
  title={Direct cardiac effects of intracoronary bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in the sheep.},
  author={Dennis H-T Chang and Leigh A Ladd and Stephen Copeland and Miguel Angel Iglesias and John L. Plummer and Laurence E. Mather},
  journal={British journal of pharmacology},
  year={2001},
  volume={132 3},
  pages={649-58}
}
1. The racemic local anaesthetic agent bupivacaine is widely used clinically for its long duration of action. Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine are bupivacaine enantiopure congeners, developed to improve upon the clinical safety of bupivacaine, especially the risk of fatal arrhythmogenesis. 2. In previous preclinical studies of the safety of these drugs with intravenous administration in conscious ewes over a wide dose range, we found that central nervous system (CNS) excito-toxicity reversed the… CONTINUE READING

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