Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia: a critical reappraisal

@article{Calabresi2014DirectAI,
  title={Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia: a critical reappraisal},
  author={P. Calabresi and B. Picconi and A. Tozzi and V. Ghiglieri and M. Filippo},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
  year={2014},
  volume={17},
  pages={1022-1030}
}
The basal ganglia are subcortical nuclei controlling voluntary actions and have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevailing model of basal ganglia function states that two circuits, the direct and indirect pathways, originate from distinct populations of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and project to different output structures. These circuits are believed to have opposite effects on movement. Specifically, the activity of direct pathway MSNs is postulated to promote… Expand
Imbalanced basal ganglia connectivity is associated with motor deficits and apathy in Huntington's disease
TLDR
The empirical evidence provides demonstrates that imbalanced basal ganglia connectivity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of some of commonest and disabling features of HD and may have important implications for therapeutics. Expand
Title: Imbalanced basal ganglia connectivity is associated with motor deficits and apathy in Huntington’s disease
The gating of movement depends on activity within the cortico-striato-thalamic loops. Within these loops, emerging from the cells of the striatum, run two opponent pathways – the direct and indirectExpand
Direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia: opponents or collaborators?
TLDR
It is important to point out that optogenetically activating either the direct or indirect pathway does not faithfully portray how these pathways function under physiological conditions, and it is shown that cortical afferent projections into striatum are selective with some afferents (cortical intratelencephalically projecting type cells) synapsing onto dMSNs while other afferentials ( cortical pyramidal tract cells)synapse directly onto iMSNs. Expand
Pathway-Specific Striatal Substrates for Habitual Behavior
TLDR
Findings indicate that the striatum imposes broad, pathway-specific modulations of incoming activity to render learned motor behaviors habitual. Expand
Activation of Direct and Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neurons Drives Distinct Brain-wide Responses
TLDR
Positive and negative signals within the striatum, thalamus, GPi, and STN were all associated with increases and decreases in single-unit activity, respectively, providing direct evidence for the opposing influence of D1 and D2 receptor-expressing striatal neurons on brain-wide circuitry. Expand
Regulation of Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity in Physiological and Pathological Conditions
Publisher Summary This chapter summarizes the downstream consequences on synaptic plasticity of different pathological insults such as those causing hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders andExpand
Striatal Control of Movement: A Role for New Neuronal (Sub-) Populations?
TLDR
Recent studies utilizing single-cell RNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptional profiles of striatal neurons discover that SPNs carry a transcriptional signature, indicating both their anatomical location and compartmental identity, and reveal the existence of additional distinct neuronal populations and previously unknown SPN sub-populations. Expand
The Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
The basal ganglia are a set of subcortical nuclei that receive inputs from the entire cortex and send outputs via the thalamus to different frontal cortical areas. Several parallel and segregatedExpand
Dopamine modulates the size of striatal projection neuron ensembles
TLDR
Two-photon Ca2+ imaging is used to simultaneously monitor the activity of direct and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons in the striatum of behaving mice during acute and prolonged manipulations of DA signaling to indicate that DA regulates striatal output by dynamically reconfiguring its sparse ensemble code. Expand
Depression in the Direct Pathway of the Dorsomedial Striatum Permits the Formation of Habitual Action.
TLDR
It is shown that postsynaptic depression in the excitatory synapses of the direct-pathway striatonigral MSNs in the DMS is formed after habit learning and chemogenetically rescuing this depression compromises the acquisition, but not the expression, of habitual action. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 114 REFERENCES
Concurrent Activation of Striatal Direct and Indirect Pathways During Action Initiation
TLDR
A novel in vivo method to specifically measure direct- and indirect-pathway SPN activity is developed, using Cre-dependent viral expression of the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 in the dorsal striatum of D1-Cre and A2A-Cre mice and predicted the occurrence of specific movements within 500 ms. Expand
Modulation of striatal projection systems by dopamine.
TLDR
The contrast provided by these studies has provided new insights into how the striatum responds to fluctuations in DA signaling and how diseases that alter this signaling change striatal function. Expand
Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
TLDR
These findings establish a critical role for basal ganglia circuitry in the bidirectional regulation of motor behaviour and indicate that modulation of direct-pathway circuitry may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for ameliorating parkinsonian motor deficits. Expand
Control of Basal Ganglia Output by Direct and Indirect Pathway Projection Neurons
TLDR
The results support the theory that key basal ganglia output neurons serve as an inhibitory gate over motor output that can be opened or closed by striatal direct and indirect pathways, respectively. Expand
Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease models
TLDR
It is shown that excitatory synapses onto indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs) exhibit higher release probability and larger N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor currents than direct- pathway synapses, and indirect- Pathway MSNs selectively express endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD), which requires dopamine D2 receptor activation. Expand
Dopamine-mediated regulation of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity
TLDR
A model in which the spontaneous membrane oscillations of neurons projecting from the striatum, in addition to the pattern of release of endogenous dopamine, bias the synapse towards preferential induction of LTP or LTD is proposed. Expand
Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate the Anatomical and Functional Balance of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
TLDR
A role for bridging collaterals in regulating the concerted balance ofstriatal output is identified and may have important implications for understanding schizophrenia, a disease involving excessive activation of striatal D2Rs that is treated with D2R blockers. Expand
Distinct Roles of Synaptic Transmission in Direct and Indirect Striatal Pathways to Reward and Aversive Behavior
TLDR
A reversible neurotransmission blocking technique was developed, in which transmission of each pathway was selectively blocked by specific expression of transmission-blocking tetanus toxin in a doxycycline-dependent manner, indicating that the coordinated modulation of these two pathways was necessary for dopamine-mediated acute psychostimulant actions. Expand
Distinct subclasses of medium spiny neurons differentially regulate striatal motor behaviors
TLDR
Two mouse models in which the function of striatonigral or striatopallidal neurons is selectively disrupted due to cell type–specific deletion of the striatal signaling protein Mr 32kDa are presented to provide insight into the selective contributions of the direct and indirect pathways to striatal motor behaviors. Expand
The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders
TLDR
A model in which specific types of basal ganglia disorders are associated with changes in the function of subpopulations of striatal projection neurons is proposed, which suggests that the activity of sub Populations of Striatal projections neurons is differentially regulated by striatal afferents and that different striatal projections may mediate different aspects of motor control. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...