Direct and indirect effects in vaccine efficacy and effectiveness.

@article{Halloran1991DirectAI,
  title={Direct and indirect effects in vaccine efficacy and effectiveness.},
  author={M. Elizabeth Halloran and Michael J. Haber and Ira M. Longini and Claudio J. Struchiner},
  journal={American journal of epidemiology},
  year={1991},
  volume={133 4},
  pages={
          323-31
        }
}
In 1915, Greenwood and Yule noted that for valid vaccine efficacy studies, exposure to infection in the vaccinated and the unvaccinated must be equal (Proc R Soc Med 1915;8(part 2):113-94). The direct effect of a vaccine, however, needs to be defined by the protection it confers given a specific amount of exposure to infection, not just a comparable exposure. In this paper, two classes of parameters are distinguished along lines differing from the conventional distinction between efficacy and… CONTINUE READING

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