Direct Injection of Protamine-protected mRNA: Results of a Phase 1/2 Vaccination Trial in Metastatic Melanoma Patients

@article{Weide2009DirectIO,
  title={Direct Injection of Protamine-protected mRNA: Results of a Phase 1/2 Vaccination Trial in Metastatic Melanoma Patients},
  author={Benjamin Weide and Steve Pascolo and Birgit Scheel and Evelyna Derhovanessian and Annette Pflugfelder and Thomas Kurt Eigentler and Graham Pawelec and Ingmar Hoerr and Hans-Georg Rammensee and Claus Garbe},
  journal={Journal of Immunotherapy},
  year={2009},
  volume={32},
  pages={498-507}
}
In mice, injection of messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for tumor-associated antigens can induce antitumor immune responses and therefore offers a broadly applicable immunotherapy approach. We injected intradermally protamine-stabilized mRNAs coding for Melan-A, Tyrosinase, gp100, Mage-A1, Mage-A3, and Survivin in 21 metastatic melanoma patients. In 10 patients keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was added to the vaccine. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor was applied as an adjuvant… 
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